Fatimid Conquest of Egypt

Article

July 5, 2022

The Fatimid conquest of Egypt (Egyptian conquest of the Fatimid dynasty) was an ifseed in July 969 when the Fatimid army, led by general Jawhar at Sikili, established an independent government under the sovereignty of the Abbasid dynasty. It is an incident that conquered Egypt under the rule of the morning. Founded in 909 in Ifrekya (modern Tunisia and northeastern Algeria) by the Islamic Shiites of the Islamic Shiites, the Fatimid dynasty advocated the overthrow of the Sunni Abbas dynasty and the unification of the Islamic world from the beginning. Although aiming to advance to the east, the Fatimid dynasty approached that goal by conquering Egypt, and had a great influence on the conflict and development of each political force and sect over the status and orthodoxity of the leaders of the Islamic world. is what happened.

Overview

The Fatimid dynasty had repeatedly invaded Egypt shortly after taking office in Ifriqiya in 909, but continued to fail before the still powerful Abbasid dynasty. However, while the Fatimid dynasty established a governing system and increased national power by the 960s, the Ikhshidid dynasty administration, which became independent in Egypt as the governor of the Abbasid dynasty, faced a protracted crisis. The Ikhshidid dynasty, which had been hit by external raids and severe famine, was exacerbated by the death of its powerful leader, Able-Misk Kafur, in 968. The power vacuum resulting from the death of Kafuru caused conflicts between various factions in Fustat, the capital of Egypt. In addition, the Byzantine Empire's (Eastern Roman Empire) offensive against Islamic forces in the eastern Mediterranean, which was underway at the same time, deepened the crisis, while Fatimid instructors were openly active in Egypt. Egyptian rulers gradually wanted to end the unstable and critical situation, embracing the possibility of conquest by the Fatimid dynasty and waiting for it. In response to this opportunity, the Fatimid caliph Al-Mu'izz-Li-Dean Allah organized a large expeditionary force to conquer Egypt. The expeditionary force, led by Jawhar, departed from Raqqada, Ifriqiya on February 6, 969, and entered the Nile Delta three months later. The rulers of the Ikhshidid dynasty wanted to surrender peacefully through negotiations. In response, Jawhar issued a security warrant (Aman), promising to start a jihad against the Byzantine Empire, respecting the rights of Egyptian representatives and the masses. Fatimid troops rejected the resistance of Ifseed troops trying to prevent the crossing of the Nile from June 29th to July 3rd, while a group of Fatimid instructors frustrated in the turmoil. He seized control and declared his obedience to Muiz. Jawhar reassured Aman and occupied the city on July 6, and the Khutbah (sermon) of the Friday worship on July 9 was read aloud in the name of Muiz. For the next four years, Jawhar served as Egyptian governor, quelling the rebellion and beginning the construction of a new capital, Al-Mansouria (later Cairo). Jawhar embarked on an expansion of power into Syria, once a territory of the Ikhshidid dynasty, and an attack on the Byzantine Empire, but these actions backfired.