History of the Philippines (Philippines Rekishi). The history of the Philippines is roughly divided into the pre-Spanish period, the Spanish colonial era (1565-198), the United States colonial era (1898-1946), and the post-independence era (1946-present).
The human bones of the Kayao people, the oldest homo sapiens in Asia 67,000 years ago, were excavated from the Kayao Cave in Penablanca, Cagayan. The human bones and stone tools of the Tabon Caves, which are believed to be about 16,500 years old, found in the Tabon Caves of Palawan, and the bones of bats and small mammals. Human skeletons are housed in jars, which some see as an influence of Chinese customs: 10.
Angono Petroglyph was found in Binangonan, Rizal, 3000 BC. Some believe that these relics were left by those who lived in the Philippines before the Negritos and Austronesians.
The relationship with these inhabitants is unknown, but apart from these inhabitants, the early inhabitants of the Philippines are considered to be Negrito. It is unknown when the Negrito also lived. Some people think it was about 20,000 years ago. The Negritos were traditionally thought of as Australo-Melanes, but genetic studies have suggested that they are neo-Mongoloids containing Australo-Melanes elements: 15.
Expansion of Austronesians
This was followed by the Austronesian tribe Malayo-Polynesian, which arrived around 4000 BC. Initially, the Negritos lived along the coast, but were chased by primitive Malays and began to live in mountainous areas. Primitive Malays had steelmaking and irrigation techniques: 31.
From 2000 BC to 1500 BC, it is said that the old Malays migrated with paddy farming. Rice has been excavated from the eastern ruins of Cagayan Valley, Luzon Island.
New Malays continued to migrate from 500 BC to the 13th century BC.
The arrival of Indian culture
In the 3rd century, there is a description of Funan as a trading partner of Funan, and it is considered to be the Filipino Islands. Trade items are potatoes and giant clams.
From 300 to 700 AD, marine peoples were active on the islands of Southeast Asia, and it seems that they were influenced by Buddhism and Hinduism in the Indian cultural sphere. In particular, the Kingdom of Srivijaya on Sumatra and the Kingdom of Majapahit on Java (both now Indonesia) have become sources of culture through trade and have been brought to the Philippines. Many modern Filipino Tagalog words also originate from Sanskrit: 33.
Information about the ancient Philippines is very scarce among the Southeast Asian regions. This is because the Philippines is remote from the Eurasian continent, so it was not so blessed with other ethnic groups who witnessed the history of the Philippines. In addition, because the Philippines is tropical, archaeological relics were rotten and difficult to remain. Therefore, some historical researchers conclude that "the Philippines has no history to be proud of before the Spanish era."
Kingdom of Tondo (Luzon)
However, it is not that there are no materials that show the state of this era. In 1990, a metal plate called the Laguna Copperplate Inscription was found on Lake Bae on Luzon Island, dated 822 AD (900 AD). This is a kind of court record written in letters belonging to the early Kawi script (the same Abugida as Baybayin).