History of the Philippines (1946-1965)

Article

May 21, 2022

This item deals with the history of the Philippines from the 1946 independence approval to the end of the Diosdado Macapagal administration, which covers many of the Third Republic of the Philippines ending January 17, 1973, with the ratification of the 1973 Constitution. ..

Independent Approval

The United States approved the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946. In conjunction with the Philippine Independence Act (widely known as the "Tidings-McDuffy Act"), President Harry S. Truman issued Proclamation No. 2695 on July 4, 1946, officially approving the independence of the Philippines. On the same day, representatives of the United States and the Philippines signed a "general relations treaty" between the two countries. The treaty provided for the independence approval of the Republic of the Philippines as of July 4, 1946 and the exclusion of US sovereignty over the Philippine archipelago. The United States left dozens of military bases, including some major bases. In addition, independence was restricted by law passed by the United States Congress. For example, the Bell Trade Act stipulates features that may include US import restrictions in the Philippine clause that "will or are likely to compete substantially with US products as set forth in this clause." He also called for ensuring that United States citizens and businesses could mine natural resources such as Philippine minerals and forests on an equal footing. At a hearing of the Senate Financial Commission, Deputy Secretary of State William Lockhart Clayton said the law "clearly contradicts the country's basic foreign economic policies" and "clearly guarantees true Philippine independence." It contradicts our promise. " The Filipino government had little choice and had no choice but to accept this clause for independence. Congress threatened to withhold the post-WWII reconstruction fund if the Bell Act was not ratified. The Philippine Congress accepted it on July 2, 1946. After independence, the United States continued to control the Philippines through secret intelligence agents from the Central Intelligence Agency, such as Edward Lansdale. As historians such as Raymond Bonner say, Lansdale dominated the life of President Ramon Magsaysay, even beating when the Filipino leader addressed the manuscript of a Filipino speech writer, and American agents were also incumbent. Discussed the drugging of Elpidio Quirino and the assassination of Senator Claro Lect. Well-known Filipino historian Roland G. Simbulan called the CIA "the secret organization of the Philippines of American imperialism."

Independence Day move

The Philippines is currently celebrating its Independence Day on June 12, the anniversary of Emilio Aguinaldo's Declaration of Independence from Spain in 1898. This declaration was not approved by the United States, which acquired the Philippine archipelago through the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War after defeating Spain in the Battle of Manila Bay in May of this year. From 1946 to 1961, the Philippines celebrated Independence Day on July 4. On May 12, 1962, President Makapagal issued Presidential Decree No. 28, proclaiming June 12, 1962 as a special holiday throughout the Philippines. In 1964, Republic Law No. 4166 changed the date of Independence Day from July 4th to June 12th and renamed the July 4th holiday to Republic Day.

Rojas Administration (1946-1948)

When the Philippine Parliament was convened in 1945, a member elected in 1941 was named Manuel Lo, the representative of the Senate.