History of the Philippines (1965-1986)
The history of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986 includes the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, also known as the Ferdinand Marcos dictatorship. The Marcos era is the last of the Third Republic (1965–1972) and most of the Philippines (1972–1981) and the Fourth Republic (1981–1986) under martial law. By the end of the Marcos dictatorship, the Philippines had experienced a debt crisis, severe poverty and serious unemployment.
Marcos Administration (1965 – 1972)
In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the presidential election and became the 10th President of the Philippines. The first phase was dominated by increasing industrialization such as the North Luzon Expressway and Asia Highway 26 and the creation of a nationwide continuous infrastructure. Marcos accomplished this by appointing a cabinet consisting primarily of technocrats and intellectuals and mobilizing them to raise funds for the army and assist in construction. Marcos built more schools and learning facilities nationwide than his predecessor made.
In 1968, Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., said that Marcos would "raise the military budget" to create a "fortress state" and impose "illegal overworked generals" on defense facilities to "militize the civilian government." I warned that I was on the road. This was a visionary commentary given the events that will occur in the next decade. Marcos also sent 10450 Filipino soldiers to Vietnam during his term under PHIL CAG. Fidel Ramos, who later became the 12th President of the Philippines in 1992, was a member of this expedition.
In 1969, Marcos ran for the second term (permitted under the then-effective 1935 Constitution) and was elected over the other 11 candidates.
Marcos' second phase was dominated by economic turmoil caused by internal and external factors, dissatisfied student groups demanding educational reforms, rising crime rates, and a growing communist rebellion.
At one point, the student activism took control of the University of the Philippines Diliman building, proclaiming a temporary free community before the dissolution of the government. The violent resistance movement continued for the next few years until martial law was declared in 1972. The incident was commonly known as the first quarter turmoil.
The turmoil of the first quarter of 1970 created a line between leftist activists and communists, as José Maria Sison also founded a significant number of Kabatarn Makabayan (KM) to advance the activists who join the Communist Party. It became more and more blurry. KM members marched in front of parliament after Marcos' national speech, throwing caskets, full crocodile and stones at Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. At the presidential palace, activists crashed into the gate with a lit truck, and as soon as the gate broke, activists rushed into the palace grounds, throwing rocks, Molotov cocktails, and Morotov cocktails. In front of the U.S. Embassy, demonstrators destroyed and burned down the embassy lobby as a result of strong resistance from the U.S. Ambassador. KM demonstrations counted 50,000 to 100,000 people per week of large-scale activities. Police confirmed that at least two activists had died in the aftermath of the January 1970 riots, injuring several. Antonio Villegas, the mayor of Manila at the time, praised the Manila Police Department for "exemplary behavior and courage," and for a long time after leaving, "First Couple."