Heligoland (German: Helgoland, English: Heligoland, Frisian: Lun, Hålilönj) is a small island in the North Sea of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The island of Helgoland is located 70 km off the coast of northwestern Germany and actually consists of a main, more populated 1.0 km² island (Hauptinsel) to the west and a smaller 0.7 km² island (Düne) to the east. be. The two islands were connected by a sandbar until 1720, when they were destroyed by a storm and separated. The highest point on the island is 61m above sea level. The two islands are part of the Pinneberg county in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The island is capped by red bedrock cliffs. The Helgoland tricolor flag is said to represent the island's nature (vegetation) in the upper green, red cliffs in the middle, and sandy beaches in the lower white.
In prehistoric times, it was already inhabited by humans. Flint stones and copper plates were found on the sea floor around the island.
In 697, King Radbod of Frisia, defeated by Pippin II of the Franks, flees.
In 1231, it was recognized as the domain of King Valdemar II of Denmark.
In 1402, it was owned by the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein.
In 1714, the Great Northern War took possession of Denmark.
In 1720, a storm destroyed the sandbar, splitting the island into two. In 1814, it was taken over by the British after the Napoleonic Wars.
On August 10, 1890, the Treaty of Helgoland-Zanzibar became part of the German Empire.
From 1936 it was used as a fuel station for German submarines.
The islanders remained on the island during World War II, but on April 18, 1945, Allied forces attacked the island with over 1,000 bombers. This killed most of the 128 German anti-aircraft gunners. On the night of the attack, the Germans withdrew from the island.
From 1945 to 1952, it was used as a bombing range for the British Army. On 18 April 1947, a bombing program was carried out by the Royal Navy using 6,800 tons of bombs (see list of large non-nuclear man-made explosions).
In 1952, it was returned to the Federal Republic of Germany (then West Germany).
Helgoland is also exempted from the Schengen Agreement.
It is now a tourist destination. Yachts are popular in the coves of the island.
Tobacco, alcoholic beverages and perfumes are duty-free for tourists.
The island is inhabited by an ethnic minority, the Fries.
They speak a Helgoland dialect of North Frisian called Halunder, which is unique to Helgoland.
Heligoland Tourist Board
"Helgoland Island" - Kotobank