Mexico City (West: Ciudad de México Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈða (ð) ðe ˈmexiko] (voice file), English: Mexico City) is the capital of the United States of Mexico. One of the 32 states that make up the country. One of the best cities in North America.
Since it has the same name as the country name, it is usually called with the word equivalent to "city", and it is pronounced "Ciudad de México" in Spanish, which is the official language of Mexico. Will be done. In Japan, in addition to the English name mainly used, it is sometimes called Mexico City.
It is the largest city in Mexico and has a population of 20.23 million including its suburbs in 2016, making it the 12th largest city in the world. It is one of the economic centers of Latin America as well as Mexico, with a metropolitan GDP of $ 383.7 billion in 2014. It is second only to São Paulo (Brazil) in Latin America and 18th in the world.
In the "World Urban Strategies Ranking" released by the Institute for Urban Strategies of the Mori Memorial Foundation in Japan in 2016, it is ranked 37th in the world and the top in Latin America. In addition, in the world city ranking announced by the American think tank in 2016, it is ranked 39th in the world, and in Latin America it is the 3rd place after Buenos Aires (Argentine capital) and São Paulo.
Formerly the official administrative name was Distrito Federal (D.F.), but in 2016 it was changed to Mexico City (Ciudad de México) and became an independent state.
It was also the former capital of the Aztec kingdom, Tenochtitlan.
The terrain is a basin surrounded by mountains on all sides. The Guadalupe Mountains to the north and the mountains such as Ahusco and Tlaloc from the west to the south. Lake Texcoco used to occupy a large part of the city, but reclamation began after the 17th century, and in 1900 a drainage channel was constructed by the Texcoco tunnel, leaving only part of the eastern part of the lake. In addition, waterways that have continued since the Aztec era remain in Xochimilco in the south. However, the land that has been landed by reclamation and drainage has weak ground, and there are cases where the building itself is sinking, such as some old buildings near the Palacio de Bellas Artes and Plaza Zocalo. This soft ground also caused liquefaction during the 1985 Mexico earthquake, causing many buildings to collapse.
Included in alpine climate. Although it is located in the highlands at an altitude of 2240 m, it is blessed with a warm climate all year round due to its low latitude. On the other hand, because of the highlands, the daily temperature changes are rather large. It is divided into a rainy season from May to October and a dry season from November to April, and rainfall is concentrated in the rainy season. Since it is located in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter from December to February, and the maximum temperature during the day does not change, but the minimum temperature is slightly lower. From the northern part to the center of the city area, the annual rainfall is about 600 mm to 800 mm, but in the mountainous areas in the southern part, the annual rainfall exceeds 1500 mm.
The center of the city is the area from Zocalo Square, which is the central square, to the downtown area Zona Rosa to the west. The Zocalo Square and its surroundings are located in the same location as the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, and are the area of "Mexico City" at the time of construction, which was built on top of Tenochtitlan by destroying it. There are many historical buildings such as the National Palace and Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral (Cathedral) that have been around since the Spanish Formosa. Also, the Tenochtitlan era