Mongolian Khwarazm Shah Conquest

Article

November 28, 2021

This section describes the conquest of the Anushtegin dynasty by the Mongol Empire between 1219 and 1222. The expedition is said to have destroyed dozens of cities and killed millions of people.

War background

After the first Mongol Empire war against gold between 1211 and 1215, Genghis Khan delegated the capture of China to General Muqali and set about preparing for a western expedition. The Khwarazm Shah monarch Allah Woodin Muhammad wins the war with the suzerain, Qara Khitai, in 1210. Ilkhanate historian Juviney warned Ala al-Dinne of the existence of a "horrible race" behind Qara Khitai, the prince of the Anushtegin dynasty, who died in 1200. Said Mortaza reports that he lamented the decline of Qara Khitai, the barrier to the "horrible people." By 1212/13, Allah Woodin had conquered the Ma Wallah Annafuru region and annexed the Ghurid dynasty in Afghanistan. The Anushtegin dynasty expanded its power towards Iran and in 1217/18 conducted an expedition to Baghdad to put pressure on the Abbasid caliphates. The movement of the Mongol Empire, which is expanding its power in the east, was transmitted to the Anushtegin dynasty, and in 1215, Allah Woodin sent a delegation led by Sayyid Baha Woodin Lazy to Chinggis. Genghis treated the delegation and dispatched a delegation of repayment led by Mahmood and others from the Khwarazm region. In 1218, Allah Woodin met with a delegation from the Mongol Empire in Bukhara and received an offer from Chinggis, "I want friendship between the two countries and I want to see them as my own children." When Alauddin asked one of his envoys, Mahmood, about the strength of the Mongol Empire, he noticed that he was angry with Allah Woodin, saying that the strength of Mongolia was weaker than that of the Anushtegin dynasty. Alauddin, who answered and regained his composure, reportedly sent back the envoy with a friendly answer. In 1218, a delegation and caravan dispatched by Mongolia were murdered by Governor Inalchuq in the town of Otrar, and goods were plundered. It was theorized that the cause of the Mongol Empire's Anushtegin dynasty expedition was retaliation for the massacre of the delegation, but the Khwarazm Shah dynasty attack was planned in advance, and the delegation was before the expedition. Opinions have emerged that presume that they were in the role of the dispatched reconnaissance corps. One of the motivations for the expedition is the awarding of new rangelands to the royal aristocrats and the alleviation of social contradictions by distributing loot to subordinates. The Otoral massacre also hit Muslim merchants who were hoping for the protection and expansion of trade routes through friendship between the Mongol Empire and the Anushtegin dynasty, and their trading network collapsed. In 1218, when an expedition led by Mongolian general Jebe destroyed Qara Khitai, which was seized by the Naimans Kuchlug, and took control of East Turkistan, the Mongol Empire that absorbed Qara Khitai came into contact with the Anushtegin dynasty. become. Prior to Kuchlug's attack, Chinggis demanded that Allah Woodin hand over Inalchuq, who had killed his caravan in Otral, but Allah Woodin refused Chinggis's request. �

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