Mongol Empire

Article

November 28, 2021

Mongol Empire ᠶᠡᠭᠡᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠣᠰИх Монгол Улс (Cyrillic transcription) Yeke Mongγol Ulus (Latin transcription) Changes in the Mongol Empire's version The version of the empire, which Temjin called himself Genghis Khan from 1206 to 1294, followed the territory of the Mongol Empire (red) and transitioned to a loose federal system of four territorial nations. (As of 1294). The Golden Horde (yellow), Chagatai Khanate (dark green), Hulagu Khan (green), and Omoto Urs (purple). The Mongol Empire is a nomadic empire (Urus) founded in 1206 by Genghis Khan, a nomadic empire of the Mongolian plateau. In medieval Mongol, Yeke Mongγol Ulus (ᠶᠡᠭᠡᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠣᠰ Yeke Mongγol Ulus) The letter is written in Uighur, "yeke mongγol ulus-un dalay-in qan", and the Chinese letter sent by the 5th Emperor Kublai to Japan is "Emperor of the Great Mongol Empire". It is confirmed that "Great Mongol Urs (Great Mongol Empire)" was the official self-proclaimed state of this nation.

Overview

The founder of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan and his brothers and sons, the generals (Noyan) represented by "Four Valiant Warriors", and their successors greatly expanded the territory from the Mongol Plateau, and in the west It has created an empire that crosses the Eurasian continent, from East Europe, Anatolia (now Turkey) and Syria, to Afghanistan, Tibet and Myanmar in the south, and to China and the Korean Peninsula in the east. At its peak, it had a territorial area of ​​about 33 million km², governing about 25% of the land on earth, and had a population of over 100 million at that time. Its territory was the second largest in human history after the British Empire. The Mongol Empire is centered around the Mongolian emperor (Kaan, Khan) who reigns over the Mongolian plateau, and the royal family of the descendants of Genghis Khan called "Altan Urk (meaning" golden clan ") and their subordinates. It formed the structure of a coalition nation formed by the generals (Noyan) and others, mainly according to the military service, etc., and the territories distributed to each place and the nations that control the territories (Urus) gathered. The Mongol Empire is based on the Turk-Mongolian cavalry corps called the "Minggan system", and each Mongolian royal family and generals have jurisdiction over dozens of those corps distributed by the order of the emperor. However, the financial bureaucrats (Bichikuchi) who report directly to the emperor were in charge of managing the taxes and civil affairs of the army corps and the conquered areas. Their code of conduct is governed by "Genghis Khan's Lessons (Jasagh)" (which was appointed by "Jarguchi, Judge"), and the Mongolian Emperor is based on this "Genghis Khan's Lessons". He was also the ultimate governor of the abolition and tax management of the various Urus. However, in 1260, the throne succession war broke out with the death of the 4th emperor Monke, and his younger brother Kublai won the throne as the 5th emperor in the capital, but the main Mongolian royal family at that time. The deaths of Berke of the Golden Horde, Fleg of Kublai's younger brother, and Argu of the Chagatai family made it virtually impossible to hold an all-imperial unified Kurultai to officially elect the Emperor of Mongolia. .. Therefore, Kublai is the current ward centered on China, the Mongolian plateau, and Tibet, which it was in direct control of.

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