Mauritania

Article

August 8, 2022

Mauritania Islamic Republic اجمهورية الإسلامية National motto: Honneur, Fraternité, Justice (French: honor, fraternity, justice) National Anthem: نشيد_وطني_موريتاني (Arabic) Mauritania National Anthem The Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية‎), commonly known as Mauritania, is a republic located in northwestern Africa. It is bordered by Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) to the northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and south, Senegal to the southwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. To the west of the Atlantic Ocean lies Cape Verde. The capital is Nouakchott. The population in 2015 is about 4.068 million. It is part of the African and Arab worlds and is a member of the African Union and the Arab League. It is also a member of the Arab Maghreb Union and is included in the broad definition of the Maghreb countries.

Country Name

The official name in Arabic is الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Al Jumhuriya Al Islamiyah Al Moorithaniyah). The official English notation is Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Commonly known as Mauritania. The Japanese notation is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. known as Mauritania. The name of the country is taken from the ancient Berber nation of Mauretania (now Algeria and Morocco) located on the Mediterranean coast of Africa.

History

From around the 8th century (some say the 4th century), the Kingdom of Ghana prospered with Kumbi-Sale, which remained in the southeastern part of the country, as its capital. The Kingdom of Ghana holds trade routes for various handicraft products such as gold produced in the vicinity of Banbuk in the upper reaches of the Senegal River, salt collected from rock salt in the Sahara Desert, copper products from the north, clothing, and accessories, and acts as a relay trade. Prospered with profit. Its prosperity continued until it was destroyed in 1077 by the Muravid dynasty, which tried to suppress the profits of such trans-Saharan trade caravans. The caravan cities of Chinguetti (Shinquito), Ouadan, Tissit, and Oualata, which are also World Heritage Sites, developed in parallel with the Kingdom of Ghana and continued to prosper even after the fall of Ghana in the 11th and 12th centuries. Chinguetti is located in the northwestern part of Mauritania and was the capital of the Chinguetti Kingdom from ancient times.In the 12th century, Chinguetti became the starting point of the pilgrimage to Mecca and became a cultural city where Islamic scholars, students and monks gathered. became. Wardan, located about 100km northeast of Chinguetti, was a stopover point for trading gold produced in the Mali Empire and salt extracted from the rock salt of Izil located about 200km northwest. thrived for hundreds of years. The inland town of Tishit also prospered as a peripheral city of the Muravid dynasty and the Alwahid dynasty, thanks to rock salt from Izil. In the 16th century, it was converted into a fortified city by the Oud-Bella tribe. It then declined as trade routes changed.

French Colonial

At the end of the 19th century, France began colonizing Senegal in the south, and in 1904 the whole area was colonized and became part of French West Africa. However, since Mauritania did not have a city-like city, the capital was placed in Saint-Louis in the northern colony of Senegal. In 1946, at the same time as being given the right to vote in the home country parliament.