Jews (Jewish Jews, Hebrew: יהודים, English: Jews, Radino: Djudios, Idish: ייִדן) are composed of Jewish believers (religious groups) or those with Jewish parents as parents. A religious believer. The original meaning refers only to the Israelites in the narrow sense. The origin comes from the fact that one of the Israelites, the Judah, was of the king of Israel. The name Judaism is due to the fact that it is a religion that many Jews worshiped.
In Europe, until the middle of the 19th century, people were mainly regarded as Jewish believers other than Israeli usage, but after the establishment of the modern nation-state, the view as a religious ethnic group became widespread. rice field. Halakha stipulates that Jews are those born to Jewish mothers or who have entered Judaism through formal procedures.
According to the current survey, there are more than 13.4 million Jews in the world. Israel is an ethnically unique nation, and immigrants live in each country. Sometimes referred to as Hebrews or Semitic.
Since the Diaspora, Jews have formed communities around the world and have become established as a minority ethnic group with a unique religion and history. However, they cannot be classified as one ethnic group that shares history and culture as a whole.
In terms of language, some speakers are Yiddish and some are Radino. Historically, Jews were Jews, but at present they can only be described as cultural groups that transcend nationality, language, and race and cannot be defined by a single scale. It has become.
The definition that "Jews are Jewish believers" applies to the ancient and medieval times, but since modern times those who have converted to Christianity in Jewish ancestry (Felix Mendelszone, Gustav Marler, Heinrich Heine). , Benjamin Disleri) and atheistic (both-attribute Jewish) people (such as Siegmund Freud and Karl Marx) are also often considered "Jews."
The person who does not believe in Judaism in Israel is Israeli (Israeli).
The Law of Return, Israel's domestic law, defines "a person born of a Jewish mother, or a person who converts to Judaism and does not believe in any other religion" as a Jew.
Also, in Jewish society and in Israel, "a person who has a Jewish mother" is called a Jew, whereas in Europe, etc., a person who has a Jewish lineage even if the mother is not Jewish ( For example, if the mother is non-Jewish and the father is Jewish), they are often treated as Jewish.
There was also the idea that the Jewish race existed in ethnology in the past. Gobineau collectively referred to the Arabs and Jews as the Semitic people, and decided that this was a second-class group of whites with a high degree of mixed race with other races. Nazism treats Jews as a race, but according to the classification by the First Enforcement Ordinance of the Imperial Civil Code, humans who formally belong to Jewish organizations are also "Jews as a race".
From this point of view, it is said that there are Jewish-specific appearance characteristics, and discriminatory tests based on these characteristics were also conducted. However, as a group that can distinguish Jews from others by physical traits.