Apple

Article

January 18, 2022

Apple (apple, scientific name: Malus domestica, Malus pumila) is a deciduous tree of the genus Apple of the Rosaceae family, or its fruit. Botanically, it is called an apple. White or light red flowers bloom in spring. The relationship with humans is old, and it seems that it was cultivated from BC. Production in Europe and the United States became popular after the 16th century, and even in Japan, there is a description in books during the Heian period. Currently, it is said that there are more than thousands of varieties produced all over the world, and nutritious fruits are eaten raw and processed to be used as ingredients for cider, jam, juice and confectionery. It has long been used as a motif in Western art, especially paintings.

Name

The standard botanical name for apples is Malus domestica, and as a synonym for it, he is also called Malus pumila var .domestica, Malus pumila. The cultivated species has the scientific name Malus domestica Borkh. It is mainly used from the standpoint that the cultivated species are hybrids of multiple wild species. Another species that has the Japanese name "apple" is Malus asiatica for Waringo, Malus baccata for Ezonoko apple in a broad sense, Malus baccata var. Baccata for Siberian apple, Malus baccata var. Baccata for Ezonoko apple, and Malus doumeri for Taiwan apple. In Japanese, it is mainly written as "apple" in Chinese characters, but this word is originally the Chinese name for the wild species of Malus asiatica of the same genus. Also, reading "檎" as "go" is an idiomatic sound, and the original reading is "gon" (go-on) and "kin" (kan-on). Waringo, which was introduced from China to Japan for a long time, is called "apple" and has come to be called apple in Japan. Currently, most of the apples widely cultivated in Japan are apples. The old name was called Riugou.

Botanical features

The place of origin is said to be the western part of Asia, and the northern Caucasus region is considered to be promising. More than 7,500 varieties of apples are cultivated and can be cultivated in the subarctic, subtropical and temperate zones. Cultivation in the tropics is difficult because it is vulnerable to heat. The apple tree is a deciduous tree, and if the Japanese cultivated species are cultivated freely, the height will be as high as 8 meters (m). The flowering season is around late spring (April-May), and white five-petaled flowers bloom. It varies depending on the variety, but the fruits are harvested and harvested from August to November. Apple fruits are about 3-15 cm in diameter and weigh about 35-1000 grams (g). The color of the integument is red, yellow-green or yellow. When ripe, it is covered with waxy secretions containing heptacosane. Most of the flesh is pale yellow to white. There are also red meat varieties whose flesh turns from red to pink, such as near the outer skin. Previously, these red meat varieties were not suitable for raw food due to their astringency, but in the 2010s, delicious red meat varieties were produced one after another in Japan by breeding. Hirosaki University (Aomori Prefecture) "Red Dream" "HFF60" "HFF33", Agricultural Research Organization "Rose Pearl", Shinshu University "Red Sensation", Aomori Prefecture Goshogawara City "Eiko" For example, "Red Cue". Apple honey has a high specific density, so it sinks when placed in water. The rest of the fruit floats on water due to its low density. . . .

History

Western

Fossils of apples have been found in the ruins of the lake-dwelling people, which are said to be indigenous peoples in Switzerland, and it is thought that apples were cultivated estimated 4,000 years ago. Apples that spread to Europe became popular in various parts of the north of central Europe from the 16th century to the 17th century, and in the middle of the 19th century, the United Kingdom produced a large number of apples.

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