National motto: None
National Anthem: Госуда́рственный гимн Росси́йской Федера́ции (Russian) National Anthem of the Russian Federation
Патриоти́ческая пе́сня (Russian) Patriotic Anthem (1991-2000)
The Russian Federation (Russian Renpo, Russian: Российская Федерация, commonly known as Россия) is a federal republic located in northern Eurasia. The capital is Moscow.
It inherits most of the former Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, and extends from Europe to Siberia and the Far East. With an area of more than 17.09 million square kilometers, it is the largest in the world.
Russia is not only a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and a leader of the Commonwealth of Independent States, but also a member of the G20, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Eurasian Economic Community, European Security and Cooperation Organization, World Trade Organization. (WTO) and other member countries. Once a member of the G8, it was suspended from the G8 after its annexation of Crimea in March 2014.
It is one of five official nuclear-weapon states authorized to possess nuclear weapons by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and is the world's largest arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Defense spending has been on the rise since 2010. The standing army of the Russian Federation consists of three armies, the ground army, the navy, and the aerospace force, as well as two separate military branches: the strategic rocket force and the airborne force. Operationally, authority is delegated to geographically divided military districts, each of which has a Joint Strategic Command that commands the three armies and conventional weapons forces (strategic nuclear weapons forces are out of command). There are approximately 900,000 active duty military personnel.
As for the political system, the one-party dictatorship of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union era was abandoned, and elections were held based on a multi-party system. It has a party system. Although a multi-party system and elections exist, the political system has been built in favor of the Putin regime, such as excluding dissident candidates from elections, and there are few opportunities to express political will. The authoritarian constitution that aims to rule by a ``dictatorship of law'' has been criticized both inside and outside the country, and the democracy index by the Economist Intelligence Unit, a research institute affiliated with The Economist magazine, ranks 134th in the world, ranking behind the ``autocratic political system''. classified (2019). It is also ranked 149th in the World Press Freedom Ranking by Reporters Without Borders (2020).
GDP As of 2014, Russia's economy was the 9th largest in the world by nominal GDP (6th by purchasing power parity, which favors developing countries). It has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is one of the world's largest producers of crude oil and one of the world's largest producers of natural gas. However, due to its resource-dependent economic structure, the economy has been stagnant in recent years due to the low price of crude oil. In addition, it has been hit further by economic sanctions from Europe and the United States as a result of its forced annexation of Crimea in 2014.
According to the State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, Russia has a population of 146.8 million (as of 2017; it was 288.62 million in 1990 during the Soviet era), making it the 9th largest population in the world. The largest ethnic group is Russian, but there are also Ukrainians, Belarusians (White Russians), Turkic Uzbeks, Siberian and Far Eastern minorities, and there are more than 100 ethnic groups in total. The official language is Russian, but there are also minority languages. Christianity accounts for 60% of the population, most of whom are Russian.