May 21, 2022

Rotterdam (Dutch: Rotterdam, pronunciation [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] (voice file) Rotterdam) is a municipality (Hemainte) in South Holland, the Netherlands. It is the second largest city in the Netherlands after Amsterdam and has the Port of Rotterdam, one of the world's leading trading ports. There are many modern buildings compared to Amsterdam.


It originated in a village established in the 13th century and gained city rights in 1328. The port developed from around the 16th century, and developed as a port city with the rise of Atlantic trade. In 1872, the new waterway that opened at the mouth of the Meuse River was further cut, allowing large ocean-going vessels to enter the port directly from the North Sea. The trade expanded by the use of this canal led to further rapid economic development at the end of the 19th century, and it grew into a city following Amsterdam. In World War II, the bombing by Nazi Germany almost destroyed and devastated the old town and harbor, surrendering to Germany. After the war, it was reconstructed as a modern planned city centered on maritime transportation.


A port city developed in the delta where the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt rivers flow into the North Sea. Through these rivers, the hinterland extends to Germany, Belgium, France and Switzerland. The city itself is located along the river Meuse. Neighboring cities include The Hague about 20 km northwest, Utrecht 45 km northeast, Breda 45 km southeast, and Amsterdam 60 km north.


In 1965, it overtook New York to become the world's largest trade volume, and maintained the world's largest cargo handling volume until 2003. After that, it was overtaken by the ports of Shanghai and Singapore in 2004, and in the 2010s, it began to worship the dust of Chinese cities, Busan, Dubai, etc., but maintained the top position in Europe (and the Americas). There is. The connection with the Ruhr Industrial Zone in Germany by the Rhine and the fact that many of the exports from each country to Europe are unloaded from this area also contributes. The main industries are petroleum refining, shipbuilding, chemical products, metal products, and sugar manufacturing. It also has the headquarters of the world's largest companies, Mittal Steel (now ArcelorMittal) and Unilever.



The Port of Rotterdam (also known as Europoort), also known as the gateway to the sea of ​​the European Union, is built here at the mouth of the Rhine. Even in the Delta Works, which closes the entire estuary of the Rhine to protect the land from storm surges, the route connecting this port to the North Sea is secured by a Maesland movable weir.


Rotterdam Airport, which is operated by low-cost carriers, is located in the suburbs, but you can reach Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, which is the main airport in the Netherlands, in about 45 minutes by train.


The Dutch Railroad (NS) frequently runs from Rotterdam Central Station to cities in the country and neighboring countries, with the high-speed train Thalys to Gare du Nord and Intercity (also known as the Beneluxtrein) to Brussels, Belgium. Is in operation. You can also reach The Hague on the RandstadRail Erasmus line. This line was originally a Dutch railway line, but it was converted to LRT in 2006 and is operated by Rotterdamse Electric Railway (RET). The city transportation is operated by the Rotterdam subway and trams.


Rotterdam is the city with the highest percentage of foreigners in the Netherlands. 52.9% of the population is from outside the Netherlands, or at least