Original version of the territory 1372 Mansaku Kosato (1294)
The Kublai Khan dynasty survived until 1388. Even after running north, it continues as the Northern Yuan until 1635.
Yuan is one of the descendants of the Mongol Empire, which spans a vast area from Middle East Asia to East Europe, of which mainland China and the Mongolian Plateau are the central areas, and East Asia and North Asia from 1271 to 1368. It is a conquest dynasty built by the Mongolians who ruled.
The official official name is Daigen, and the Yuan dynasty, the Yuan dynasty, the Yuan empire, the Yuan dynasty, and the Great Mongol dynasty. It is also called "Daimon Gorukoku". It is a conquest dynasty founded by Mongolian Kiyat Borjigin, and his surname is "Kiyat On".
Definition and name
In traditional terms, it was recognized as "a country where the Mongolian empire that conquered China became an orthodox Chinese empire after the internal conflict that split into north and south", but from a viewpoint, "the original was not China, but a large country." There are various opinions, saying, "The country of Mongolian nomads called the former Urs."
The origin of the Chinese dynasty was the unified dynasty of China since the collapse of Tang (907), and it was chased by the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), which ruled China and its book-sealing nation and the entire Mongol Empire from the big city (now Beijing). After becoming the Northern Yuan, he returned to the Mongol Plateau. Among the successive conquest dynasties of China (Liao, Kim, Qing, etc.), only the former ruled that "political system and ethnic management are not assimilated into the traditional system of Chinese Hans, and they also have a strong peculiarity of the nomadic empire inherited from the Mongol Empire." Got the law. On the other hand, as will be described later, the characteristics of the administrative system and economic management inherit the mechanism of the Southern Song almost as it is.
It was originally established in 1260 when Kublai (Hubirai), the grandson of Genghis Khan and the fifth emperor of the Mongol Empire, changed the name of the Mongol Empire to the Yuan in 1271.・ Yeke Mongol Ulus (, Roman notation: Dai-ön Yeke Mongγol Ulus) That is, it was called "Omoto". In other words, it can be understood that the establishment of the yuan in 1271 was merely a change of the official name of the Mongol Empire, "Yeke Mongol Urs," so the yuan is the imperial government of the Mongol Empire after Kublai. .. It is probable that the national name "Omoto" was also completed as the name of a series of administrations, but following the principle of calling the official names of dynasties such as Tang and Song in the history of the Chinese dynasty in one letter. By convention, this Kublai dynasty is also simply abbreviated as "former." For example, in the Chinese history, the Yuan dynasty is said to be a dynasty that dates back to Kublai and begins with Genghis Khan before the name change, and the Yuan dynasty is often regarded as the Chinese dynasty of the Mongol Empire.
Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq Böke vie for the throne, leading to a civil war in which the empire split into north and south, overthrowing it by force and gaining a single throne, causing confusion since the start of his ancestor Genghis Khan. It was the coronation of. For this reason, the practice of inheriting the Mongol Empire, which had been unanimously elected by Kurultai until then, was broken, and the discord and confrontation within the Mongol Empire became apparent in the form of appealing to each other by force. In particular, the Mongolian royalty who are dissatisfied with Kublai's rule, such as part of the Chagatai Khan, because Kaidu of the Ogedei family did not recognize Kublai's sovereignty in Central Asia before and after the adoption of the Omoto national name.