January 18, 2022

Winter (fuyu) is one of the four seasons and refers to the coldest period / season of the year.


The season between autumn and spring. It may refer to the period when the sun is the lowest and the night is the longest in the year, such as the 24th solar term and the lunar calendar. In the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures are often low around January-February after the winter solstice, and in the Southern Hemisphere around July-August after the summer solstice. The Japan Meteorological Agency calls a day with a daily minimum temperature of 0 ° C or less a winter day (fuyubi) and a day with a daily maximum temperature of 0 ° C or less a midwinter day (mafuyubi). Such days occur from December to March of the following year around January every year (however, depending on the year and region, they may occur in November and April), so in Japan around this time. Enters the winter range.


When the northern hemisphere is winter, the southern hemisphere is in summer due to the high solar altitude, and when the southern hemisphere is in winter, the northern hemisphere is also in summer. January, February, and December in social conventions and meteorology. For example, "warm winter" and "severe winter" are judged by the average temperature of these three months. If it is January, February, and December during the cold year and one year, winter as one season cannot be evaluated. Therefore, the year including January and February is summarized by the season. For example, "winter 2009" is December 2008, January 2009, and February 2009. Also, write "Winter 2008/2009". Things that may occur before November or after March, such as the day of the first snow and the last snow, are also based on this definition. From the beginning of winter to the day before the beginning of spring in the section cut based on the 24 solar terms. October, November, and December according to the lunar calendar. Close to the top, but off by up to half a month. January / February / March in the year. In English, these three months are called winter quarter. Astronomically, from the winter equinox to the spring equinox. Here, "Dongzhi" and "Vernal Equinox" are not "Dongzhi Day" and "Vernal Equinox Day", but the moment when the solar ecliptic becomes 270 ° or 0 °. Traditionally in the West, it may be from the day of the winter equinox to the day before the vernal equinox. Winter climbing records in mountaineering are often determined based on this practice. In the tropics it is sometimes said that there is no winter, and in the polar regions it is said that it is winter all year round. In regions where there is snowfall or freezing of the sea, the beginning may be the beginning of winter, and snowmelt or thaw may be the end of winter. Mifuyu The period from early winter to the day before heavy snowfall is also called Mengfuyu. Midwinter → The period from heavy snow to the day before the cold. Late winter → The period from Xiaohan to the day before the beginning of spring, also called seasonal winter.


The winter season is born because the temperature changes due to the difference in solar altitude. Since the earth revolves around the earth's axis, the solar zenith angle changes depending on the season even at the same point, and when the solar zenith angle becomes low, it becomes winter. In low latitude areas near the equator, there is no noticeable change in weather in winter because the difference in solar altitude depending on the season is small. Also, in polar regions and high latitude regions, the phenomenon of polar night, in which the sun does not rise in winter, occurs. In addition, the altitude, air mass, ocean current, wind, etc. of the land affect the winter climate, so even if they are at the same latitude, the winter climate will differ. For example, in Monaco near 43 ° north latitude, the lowest temperature in January is around 8 ° C, but in Asahikawa at the same latitude, it drops to around -14 ° C in the same month. In Japan, it gets colder and colder from autumn, and it is winter that frost, snow, and other ice-related phenomena can be seen outdoors. Also, until the end of winter, the daytime is shorter and the night is longer. When the Siberian High overhangs and the pressure distribution is high in the west and low in the east, this is called the winter type pressure distribution.

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