Toi invasion

Article

May 20, 2022

Toi no Invasion is an incident in which pirates, mainly a group of Jurchens, attacked Iki and Tsushima in 1019, and invaded Chikuzen. Also known as the Toi Invasion.

Name

Toi is said to have applied Japanese characters to toi, which is the Goryeo word for Dongyi, which is the eastern part of Goryeo. It appears as 되 (as it is, "toy") in books written in Hangul after the promulgation of Hunminjeongeum in the 15th century.

Historical materials

For more information on this case, see "Koemon" and "Asano Group". There are few articles in the Korean history book "Goryeosa".

Background

Frequent piracy on the coast of Japan

From the 9th century to the 11th century, Japan was attacked and plundered by foreign pirates such as Shilla and Goryeo dozens of times, even if it was recorded, and the ones that suffered particularly severe damage were Chikuzen, Chikugo, and Hizen. After Higo, it was on the Kyushu coast of Satsuma.

Subject of invasion

Tsushima Judge Choganbiiki, who was taken to Toi, looked for a chance of a thief and secretly went to Goryeo to get information about the safety of the family who was taken away after the escape. Nagamine heard that Goryeo fought and repelled Toi, rescued 300 Japanese prisoners, but many of Nagamine's family were killed, and the main invasion was not Goryeo but a sword. I got information such as that it was I.

Her Jurchen from the 10th to 13th centuries on the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan

It is believed that the main force of "Toi Invasion" was Jurchen. Jurchen is a people who founded Qing in the 12th century and later in the 17th century as the Manchu people through the later money. Recent excavations show that during the 10th and early 13th centuries, Jurchens were invading the Amur River system and especially the coastal areas of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk in the coastal states of Vladivostok and north of it. It is believed that the people of the system were engaged in trade from the Amur River system and the northern coast of the Sea of ​​Japan to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. Among the groups that became the mothers of Dongdan Kingdom and mature women who appeared in the materials around the 10th century and advanced to the Sea of ​​Japan from the direction of Vladivostok at that time, the group that seems to be the Jurchen tribe who was responsible for the invasion of Toi was the Sea of ​​Japan. It is probable that the group came south along the coast to the Korean Peninsula. At the beginning of the 13th century, Puxian Wannu built a great country in northeastern China, and Jurchen, who had advanced to the coastal areas of the Sea of ​​Japan, joined this group, and during this period Japan around Vladivostok and coastal states. Many mountain castles were built on the sea side. However, it seems that all the mountain castles that advanced to the coastal area on the Sea of ​​Japan side fell by the Mongol Imperial Army in the 1220s, and according to recent excavation reports, the remains of mountain castles and dwellings in the coastal states in the 13th to 14th centuries. There was almost no evidence that it was used after that, and it seems that the Jurchen group, which had advanced to the coastal areas of the Sea of ​​Japan, was virtually destroyed or significantly reduced. Instead, the Jurchen system of the Amur River system, which was early subordinate to the Mongolian Empire, developed until the Meiji era, and the mainstream trade route from Northeast Asia to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk after the mid-13th century was from the coastal area of ​​the Sea of ​​Japan to the inland Amur River system. It seems that there was a big shift. In addition, it is known that the Japanese side was wary of the invasion of Mongolia from the north before and after the so-called Mongol invasion (role of Fuminaga and Hiroyasu). It seems that Japan was not included in the geographical concept of the region. This difference in perception is also inland.