The Antarctic Treaty is a multilateral treaty that stipulates the peaceful use of the Antarctic region and the freeze of territorial rights.
Antarctica has been an unexplored land for a long time due to the difficult weather conditions that make it difficult for people to settle down. Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union (currently Russia, the successor country), Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, which had established an international cooperation system for research and research in the South Pole during the International Year of Earth Observation from 1957 to 1958. Twelve countries, New Zealand, Norway and South Africa, adopted the Antarctic Treaty on December 1, 1959 for the peaceful use of the Antarctic. Antarctica (the area south of latitude 60 degrees south, including all ice shelves) is the subject of the treaty. The outline of the treaty is as follows.
Peaceful use of Antarctica (prohibition of military use)
Freedom of scientific research and international cooperation
Freezing territorial sovereignty and claims in Antarctica
Prohibition of nuclear explosion and disposal of radioactive waste
Establishing lookouts to ensure compliance with the Convention
Conducting discussions on matters of common interest in Antarctica
Meeting to develop measures to promote the principles and objectives of the Convention
Until then, regarding the territorial rights of Antarctica, other countries also claimed to occupy the archipelago in the range of latitude 50 degrees south and latitude 20 degrees west to 80 degrees west in 1908. Was making a claim of territorial territory. There is occupation in international law as the basis for acquiring the national territory, but it is difficult to effectively control Antarctica due to its weather, etc., and it is impossible to apply the doctrine of preoccupation as it is, even if there is no preoccupation. Sectoralism was argued to allow the acquisition of territory to a certain extent. Many nations opposed sectorism, and although it was not established as an international law, the possibility of effective control has become undeniable due to advances in science and technology. Article 4 of this Convention also states that claims of sovereignty are prohibited from claiming new or expanded parties, but at the same time do not mean abandonment of claims of sovereignty, and the claims of each country are frozen. To.
It also stipulated that Antarctica should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, prohibiting any military use, and establishing a free ground and air inspection system to ensure its implementation. Peaceful use prohibits all nuclear explosions and radioactive waste disposal in the future, unless permitted by international agreement. I argued to the end what to do with this nuclear explosion for peaceful use, but in the end, if a general agreement could be reached in the future by Japan's mediation, it would be applied to Antarctica, but until then it was completely banned.
States conducting scientific observations in Antarctica can participate in the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Conference, where they exchange information and hold various discussions on the Antarctic, including various treaties. Additional treaties on the conservation of nature in Antarctica have also been signed: the Treaty on the Conservation of Antarctic Pseudomonas in 1972, the Treaty on the Conservation of Marine Biological Resources in the Antarctic in 1980, and the Environmental Protection in 1991. The Antarctic Treaty Protocol, etc. have been adopted. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS) was established in Buenos Aires on September 1, 2004.
The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Conference (ATCM) is an annual international conference for the management and operation of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS).
At this conference, only 29 of the 54 treaty states have the right to participate in decision-making.