PhD

Article

May 20, 2022

Doctor's degree (Ph.D or D.Ph English: Doctor's degree) (Japanese degree is "Hakushi", old university dormitory official title is "Hakase") is a higher education institution in many countries. -The highest degree given in the system (see PhD degree). Depending on the country, there may be a degree higher than the doctor's degree (eg, a large doctor who was abolished in 1891). Also known as a doctor from English, it is defined as the highest level 8 in the ISCED, which classifies the level of education in the world, and the highest level 8 in the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In Japan, the "Degree Ordinance" promulgated in 1887 (Meiji 20) provides five types of doctors: doctor of law, doctor of medicine, doctor of engineering, doctor of science, and doctor of science. It was highly evaluated in Ichii, and the degree holders were respected. The number of doctoral degrees that started with 5 types has increased to 19 types, but it was abolished due to the system change in 1991. Currently, the fields of specialization such as "Doctor of Letters" are shown in parentheses, and the number is well over 100. The degree decree enacted in 1890 states that the doctoral degree is "awarded to those who have entered the graduate school and have passed regular examinations, and also to those who have academic ability equivalent to or higher than this, after being discussed by the Imperial University Council." It is also related to the fact that the granting authority was not a university but a minister of education, and was positioned as a national event, much more rigorous and limited than it is now. In Japan, the percentage of full-time employees and full-time staff who have completed doctoral programs by academic field is 76.2% for doctors of engineering, 74.1% for doctors of health (doctors, dentists, etc.), 66.0% for doctors in agriculture, 41.0% for doctors in humanities, and doctors in education and arts. Others are 49.5%. The annual income of the next year after completing the doctoral course in 2018 is divided into 15 categories from "no income" to "15 million yen or more", and health is the highest at "12 million to less than 15 million yen", followed by engineering. "4 million to less than 5 million yen", social science and science "3 million to less than 4 million yen", agriculture "2 million to less than 3 million yen", human science "1 million to less than 2 million yen" rice field. The annual income of doctoral degree graduates tends to be high in health, engineering, science, and society, and more than 30% of health is over 10 million yen. The highest income ratios are for science and society at less than 3-4 million yen, engineering at less than 4-5 million yen, and health at less than 5-6 million yen. Agricultural science was less than 2 to 3 million yen, and humanities was less than 1 to 2 million yen. About 40% of those who completed the doctoral program in the humanities accounted for less than 4 million yen, of which 19.6% were the most multi-layered. Although there are some differences depending on the country, there are two types of doctoral degrees (Doctor), which are positioned as the highest internationally, doctoral course (Dr. A) and doctoral dissertation (Dr. B). Doctoral courses are being treated in many countries. In Japan, guidance is provided by masters and equivalent academic abilities at higher education institutions such as universities and degree-granting institutions (in Japan, the National Institution for Academic Reform and Degree Conferring) under Article 104 of the School Education Law. While receiving guidance from a professor, you can obtain it by conducting research on the main research themes in the doctoral program or the doctoral program of the graduate school, writing the contents as a dissertation, and being recognized by the awarding institution as being suitable for the highest degree ( "Dr. A", commonly known as "Course Doctor" or "Course Doctor"). The latter doctoral dissertation is contrasted with this course doctor. This is a system peculiar to Japan. The acquisition requirements are quite strict.