Anti-Semitism is hostility, hatred, persecution, and prejudice against Jews and Judaism. Also, the idea of discriminating and excluding Jews for religious, economic, and racial reasons.
The position based on racial theory since the 19th century is called antisemitism or antisemitism, and pre-modern racist Jewish hatred (English: judeophobia, Germany: It is also called racist anti-Semitism to distinguish it from Judenhass). Semitic refers to the Semitic-speaking Semitic people, including Arabs and Jews. In the 19th century, the Semitic and Aryan people were contrasted by Ernest Renan and Wilhelm Mar, and the term "anti-Semitism" was established.
Regarding the historical development of anti-Semitism, there is the following arrangement by Jerome Chains.
Anti-Judaism in ancient Greece and ancient Rome before Christianity. This was a nationally conscious personality.
Christian in ancient and medieval times. It had a religious and theological character and expanded to modern times.
In Islam. However, in Islam, Jews were treated more favorably than in the Christian culture.
Political and economic things of the Enlightenment era. This laid the foundation for later racial things (anti-Semitism).
Racial anti-Semitism since the 19th century. This culminated in Nazism.
Modern (also known as New Anti-Semitism). Chains further argues that anti-Semitism can be broadly divided into three categories:
Ancient things with a strong ethnic character
Christian for religious reasons
Racial things since the 19th century In fact, it is difficult to distinguish between general abuse and abuse among ethnic groups and anti-Semitism in the sense of posterity before ancient Rome. After the acceptance of Christianity by European nations, there was a situation that could be clearly called anti-Semitism. Jews have been regarded as outsiders in the Islamic world. Racial-based anti-Semitism (anti-Semitism) was advocated in modern societies after the Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, resulting in the genocide of Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II. Since the founding of Israel in 1948, anti-Semitism has become widespread in the Middle East.
In the following, not only the history of anti-Semitism, but also the history of the birth of anti-Semitism, the situation of each era surrounding Jews, the treatment of Jews in each society of each country, and the reaction of the Jews. ..
In 586 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II of the Neo-Babylonian kingdom conquered the kingdom of Judah. The temple in Jerusalem was destroyed, and Jews, including King Zedekiya, were taken prisoner and displaced to Babylonia (Babylonian captivity). In 538 BC, King Cyrus II of Persia conquered Neo-Babylonian Empire, allowing the Jews to rebuild the temple and liberating it. At this time, some Jewish merchants did not return to Palestine and stayed in Babylon and elsewhere, thus separating the Jews during the Persian rule (537 BC-332 BC).
Hecataeus of Abdullah, a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC, noted that Moses established a lifestyle that was contrary to the spirit of humanity and hospitality.
In the 2nd century BC, King Antiochus IV of Seleucid Syria was Ptolemy of Egypt.