Old Siberian

Article

August 8, 2022

Old Siberian languages ​​(Ko-Siberian Shogo) is a collective term for isolated languages ​​and small families spoken in Siberia. Also known as Old Asian languages, Old Siberian languages, Old Asian languages, and Okhotsk languages. There is no mutual phylogenetic relationship. Tungusic, Turkic, and Uralic languages ​​are spoken mainly in present-day Siberia (and are increasingly being replaced by Russian), but Old Siberian languages ​​may have been widely spoken before then.

Main 4 Language Families

It can be grouped into four families, but the relationships between them are unknown. Chukchi-Kamchatka family It is used in the Chukotka and Kamchatka peninsulas in eastern Siberia. Chukchi and its close relatives Koryak (Koryak), Alutor, Kelek, and, although there is another theory, a separate language, Itelmen (Kamchadar). Both have less than a few thousand speakers. The Kerek language is endangered, and Kamchadar has fewer than 100 speakers. Yukaghir family Two languages ​​are spoken in northeastern Siberia, in the lower reaches of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers. Other languages ​​such as Chuvantsy, which were used further inland and to the east, became extinct. Some believe it has something to do with the Uralic language family. Nivkh (Gilyak) The language of the Nivkh people living in Karafuto from the lower Amur River basin. It is an isolated language (a small language family when sub-dialects are regarded as individual languages), and its relationship with Ainu, Korean, Japanese, etc. has been debated, but its phylogeny has not been proven. Some people Yenisei language family The Ket language, spoken in the middle Yenisei basin, is thought to have formed a small language family together with several (dead) languages ​​such as Yug in ancient times. It was once thought to be related to Sino-Tibetan and Burushaski languages. In 2008, Edward Vajda revealed that the Yenisei and Na-Dene languages ​​(including Tlingit, Yeak, and Athabaskan languages ​​spoken in Alaska and Canada) are in the same lineage. This is based on a rigorous methodology based on verb morphology and phonological comparison, and has received support from many linguists, and has proposed the Dene-Yeniseian language family, which is a combination of these two language families.

Word families that may contain

In addition, the Ainu and Eskimo-Aleut languages ​​are sometimes included in the Old Siberian languages.

Main Language

Lineage

The Yukaghir language family forms the Ural-Yukaghir language family together with the Uralic language family, and the Yeniseian language family forms the Dene-Yeniseian language family with the Nadene language family. There is also a Ural-Siberian language family hypothesis that includes Eskimo-Aleut languages ​​in the Uralic, Yukaghir, and Chukchi-Kamchatka languages. Based on these hypotheses, Sergei Starostin's theory covering the entire Eurasian continent called the Dene-Caucasian language family, the Eurasian language family, the Nostratic language family, and the Borea language family have been proposed.

speaker name

These language-speaking peoples were named Paleo-asiatics by L. von Schrenck, then Paleo-Siberians by M.A. Czaplicka, and They were called Americanoids by W.Johelson, but there is no definitive designation.

footnote

References