May 21, 2022

Taiwan (Taiwan, Taiwan, Shigeru: 臺灣 / Taiwan; Tai: Taiwan (Tâi-uân); Simplified: Taiwan (Táiwān); English: Taiwan, Formosa) is a region centered on the islands of East Asia and the main island of Taiwan. It is a name. The characters used in Taiwan are traditional Chinese, and you should refrain from using simplified Chinese when interacting with Taiwanese. In 1945 (Showa 20), following the surrender of the Empire of Japan (Japan), which ruled Taiwan at that time, in World War II, Taiwan, along with the Penghu Islands, was the government of the Republic of China, which was based in Mainland China at that time. Incorporated below (Taiwan Gwangbok). In 1950, the Republic of China lost the land of Mainland China and Hainan Island due to the defeat of the Chinese Civil War, which adopted the party state system, so Taiwan was the location of the central government (Taiwan National Government) relocated from Mainland China, and China continued after 1955. It has become the de facto mainland, which occupies more than 99% of the area in the area effectively controlled by the Republic of China (Free Zone of the Republic of China) (see Geography for details). Therefore, the notation "Taiwan" is also used as the common name of the Republic of China or the name of the entire Taiwanese gold horse (see the definition for details). Neighboring countries include Japan in the east and northeast, the Philippines in the south, and the People's Republic of China (continent of China) in the west and northwest. The central city of Taiwan is Taipei City, which has the function of the capital of the Republic of China, and forms the Taipei metropolitan area together with its outer port, Keelung City, and New Taipei City, which has the largest population in Taiwan (as of 2020).


Formerly known as "Formosa" (Portuguese: Formosa, "Beautiful Island"), the island of Taiwan was the origin of Taiwan until the colonization of the Netherlands and Spain during the great voyages of the 17th century when the Han Chinese began to migrate to the island. Residents mainly lived there. In 1662, Koxinga, a supporter of the Ming Dynasty Revival, expelled the Netherlands and established the island's first political entity, the Kingdom of Dongning. Qing later defeated the kingdom and annexed Taiwan Island. When the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed as a result of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan Island and Penghu Islands were transferred from Qing to Japan and became Japanese territory Taiwan governed by the Government-General of Taiwan. The Republic of China declared Taiwan (Taiwan Island / Penghu Islands) as "a place to be returned to the Republic of China stolen from Qing by Japan" in the Cairo Declaration in 1943. In 1945, the Republic of China requisitioned Japan's governing body in Taiwan and incorporated it as part of its own country as the Ministry of Taiwan (Taiwan Gwangbok). After the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China relocated its government from mainland China to Taiwan in 1949. The seat of "China" in the United Nations was succeeded by the People's Republic of China by the 1971 Albania resolution. The Republic of China has abandoned regaining sovereignty over mainland China since 1992. The People's Republic of China is calling for Taiwan to become "Taiwan Province under the rights of the People's Republic of China" based on one China policy. In the latter half of the 20th century, Taiwan experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization, and is now a developed country. In the 1980s and early 1990s, universal suffrage developed into a multi-party democracy. Taiwan is one of the four Asian Tigers and is a member of the WTO and APEC. With the 21st largest economy in the world, the high-tech industry plays an important role in the world economy. Taiwan ranks high in terms of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, medical care, public education, economic freedom, gender equality, and human development. Taiwan ranked second in Asia in the 2022 Press Freedom Index released by the US international human rights group Freedom House. Democracy in 2021 announced by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research division of the English magazine Economist.