library

Article

January 18, 2022

A library (Toshokan, English: library, German: Bibliothek, French: bibliothèque) collects and stores media and information materials such as books, magazines, audiovisual materials, Braille materials, and recorded materials, and provides them to users. It is a facility or institution that performs such things. It is a kind of basic accumulation type cultural facility, and while museums mainly deal with real materials and archives mainly deal with atypical document materials, libraries are relatively standardized mainly for publications. It accumulates expensive materials. "Library" is a translated word (Japanese-made Chinese language) translated from the English library in the middle of the Meiji era. "Library" meant a building that takes the "figure" of a map (illustration) and the "book" of a book into a book and stores the book.

Library history

Ancient

One of the most famous libraries in the history of the world is the Court Library of Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria in the 7th century BC (Ashurbanipal Library). The excavation of the library's clay tablet documents, which were preserved underground during the fall of Assyria, made great strides in the historical study of ancient Mesopotamia. The Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC is a well-known library during the Hellenistic period. The library had a thorough collection policy that if a traveler visiting the area had a book, he would confiscate it and make a manuscript. In addition, there was an annexed herb garden, which was used to collect genetic resources like today's botanical gardens. In other words, it has functions equivalent to what is now called a library, archives, and museum, and was the best academic hall of fame in classical antiquity. Three major ancient libraries Alexandria Library (All books will be lost due to arson in the library) Library of Pergamum-Mysia, Turkey Celsus Library-Ephesus Ruins, Turkey

Medieval / Early Modern

In the Islamic world, in 830 the 7th Abbasid Caliphate Marmoon founded the House of Wisdom (Bite al-Hikuma) in Baghdad. At the House of Wisdom, Manuscripts as well as Persian and Greek literature were translated. When the Umayyad dynasty of the Andals was established on the Iberian Peninsula, seven libraries were built in Cordoba, and the Caliphate library alone had a collection of 400,000 volumes. In medieval Europe, monasteries often had libraries and libraries, but the books were chained to bookshelves because they were so valuable that a single manuscript could buy a house. Historically, it has long been a place where materials were collected for academic research, and were not available to anyone other than scholars and aristocrats, or were charged for use. Only when Gutenberg's letterpress printing in the 15th century allowed mass production of books became possible, the principle of "free for everyone" became widespread, and a membership-based union library and city library were established among the people. The library has become a social device for knowledge sharing by systematically collecting, preserving and providing typographic reproductions. Modern organizations have libraries to maintain their level of knowledge. In France, the Royal Library was founded by Charles V in 1367 and became the French National Library. In Italy, the Marathestiana Library was founded in 1452. In England, the Bodleian Library opened in 1598.

20th century

In the 20th century, libraries will be positioned as a means of sharing information and knowledge of members by schools, businesses, medical facilities, etc.

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