Saitama Prefecture (Saitama Prefecture) is a prefecture located in the Kanto region of Japan. The prefectural capital is Saitama City.
It constitutes the metropolitan area and has the fifth largest population in Japan after Tokyo, Kanagawa, Osaka, and Aichi prefectures. Population density is the fourth highest after Tokyo, Osaka and Kanagawa prefectures. The prefecture's financial strength index is the fourth largest in Japan. It corresponds to a part of Musashi Province, a province of Japan. The area is 39th, and the habitable area ratio is the 3rd largest. There is only one village, Higashi-Chichibu Village.
The prefectural area is the northern part of Musashi Province, the old name of the country, and in the Kanto region, it borders on 1 metropolitan area and 4 prefectures other than Kanagawa prefecture. In the Chubu region, it also borders Nagano and Yamanashi prefectures. The number of prefectures adjacent to it is second only to Nagano prefecture. One of the eight inland prefectures in Japan. Although it does not have a trading port or a seaside industrial area, it has a population of about 7.35 million and is the fifth largest in the country, most of which are concentrated in the southeastern part of the prefecture. According to the day / night population ratio (2015 survey, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications), the daytime population outflow is the highest in Japan at 88.5%, and it has a strong character as a commuter town. Agricultural output is the 18th place (2015), but there are also areas where suburban agriculture is flourishing in the north, and there are also agricultural products such as green onions, spinach, and broccoli that are within the third place in the country. In addition, the ratio of rivers to the area is large, and it is about 3.9%, which is the largest in 47 prefectures nationwide, overtaking Osaka prefecture, which is called the city of water.
The Chichibu area in the western part of the prefecture is mountains and hills, but the other areas are flat areas that form part of the Kanto plain. The southeastern part adjacent to Tokyo is densely populated, and the capital city, Bedtown, is formed along the transportation network that extends radially from Tokyo. Rich agricultural land spreads in the north.
Saitama City, where the prefectural office is located, is the largest city in the inland prefecture and the only ordinance-designated city in the inland prefecture. The high-speed transportation network by land to Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kita-Kantou, Shinetsu, and Hokuriku runs through this prefecture. In particular, the major railway networks from each of the above regions, such as the Shinkansen, always pass through "Omiya Station" in this prefecture, so Omiya Station is not only recognized as the central station of this prefecture, but also has a large scale. Therefore, it is known as a huge terminal station nationwide, and many people come and go in the Omiya area under the nickname of "Railway Town", and a lively cityscape is formed despite being an inland area.
On January 28, 1869 (Meiji 2) of the Meiji Restoration, Omiya Prefecture was established by the abolished feudal clan, but the prefectural office was tentatively placed in 4-chome, Bakurocho, Tokyo. Eight months later, in September of the same year, the name was changed to Urawa Prefecture, and the former Saitama Prefecture (about one-third of the eastern side of the current Saitama Prefecture), which was formed by integrating Iwatsuki Prefecture and Oshi Prefecture, was initially established by the prefectural office in Saitama. Since it was planned to be located in Iwatsuki-cho, Saitama City (currently Iwatsuki-ku, Saitama City), it was named Saitama Prefecture from the name of the county. However, Iwatsuki does not have a building suitable for the prefectural office, and the prefectural office work was carried out at the former Urawa Prefectural Office in Urawa-shuku, Adachi-gun (currently Urawa-ku, Saitama City). On the other hand, the area that corresponds to about two-thirds of the west side of the current Saitama prefecture became Iruma prefecture, and after that, it merged with Gunma prefecture and became Kumagaya prefecture, but Kumagaya prefecture disappeared in just three years, and the former Iruma prefecture area became the former Saitama prefecture. The present Saitama prefecture was born by merging with the prefecture. At that time, the location of the prefectural office was changed to Urawa-shuku with the name of Saitama prefecture, so Iwatsuki-cho did not function as a substantial prefectural office. On September 25, 1890 (Meiji 23), Urawa-cho, Kitaadachi-gun was officially the prefectural capital by the edict.
The birthplace of the place name of "Saitama" is "Saitama-mura, Saitama-gun" (currently: Gyo.