Officers (commissioned officers) are military personnel who have been educated as beginner officers such as military officers at military academies of organizations such as the armed forces of each country, and call military officers of the rank of second lieutenant or higher. Also called an officer. The Japanese translation of "officer" in 1868 was "officer", but from around 1887 it changed to "officer". Be on top of the noncommissioned officer. In the Self-Defense Forces, senior SDF personnel of 3rd class (3rd class land lieutenant, 3rd class lieutenant, 3rd class air lieutenant) or more correspond to this. In addition, when an officer is used as a ship term, it is also used for high-class seafarers such as captains, chief engineers, and navigators. In the PLA (People's Republic of China) and the Republic of China Armed Forces (Taiwan), officers (executive self-defense officer class) are called military officers, and "officer" means non-commissioned officer (soccer class).
In the Japanese Army, "officer" had its own definition, and in the Japanese Navy, officers and officers were strictly distinguished. In the Japanese Army, from the Meiji era to the Taisho era, until February 14, 1937 (Showa 12), officers equivalent to junior officers were called officers, and those equivalent to field officers were called superior officers.
(In the Japanese Navy, on September 22, 1919 (Taisho 8), the division between officers and superiors was abolished by Edict No. 427.
This section describes the "commissioned officer" system in a broad sense as a Japanese translation of "commissioned officer".
Initially, military officers were appointed from a class close to the ruling class, such as aristocrats who belonged to the founder's family, and were treated like status rather than job title. However, since modern times, the military has become more specialized, and aristocrats educated at officer training schools have been appointed. In general, officers are educated as commanders after undergoing basic military training and learn more about specialized military departments. However, promotion from a soldier to a non-commissioned officer is normal, but in many countries the promotion from a non-commissioned officer to a non-commissioned officer is limited. A warrant officer system has been developed that receives the same treatment as.
Even after the path to officers was opened to the descendants of indigenous peoples and other commoners, Noblesse oblige's idea was that aristocratic boys were half obliged to go to the military academy. In countries where the aristocracy remains even today, aristocratic boys often go to the military academy.
Officers are supposed to represent the head of state, and in the Army, the commander of a platoon leader or a company commander or higher is usually assigned by an officer. Also, in the Navy, warships that represent the state externally (including short boats such as warship-mounted boats) must be under the command of officers, which is stated in Article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Appearing (see warships). In many countries, aircraft pilots are limited to officers because they have a high degree of authority.
Remnants of the status of officers and their character in the hierarchy of origin can be found in Article 49 of the "Geneva Convention on the Treatment of POWs, August 12, 1949". In the same article, paragraphs 1 and 2 permit the use of prisoners of war as workers. However, the proviso of Paragraph 3 stipulates that "an officer or a person in a position equivalent thereto shall not be forced to work under any circumstances", and there is no application for the person himself / herself. It is forbidden to have officers work as long as possible.
The rank system of military graduates and non-commissioned officers varies depending on the country and era, but the officer system is relatively common and is roughly divided into general officers, field officers, and junior officers, each of which is large, medium, small (or 1st class, etc.). It is often divided into 2nd and 3rd grades (see the list of rank names in the military for details). Master