summer solstice

Article

July 5, 2022

The summer solstice (English: summer solstice) is the tenth of the twenty-four solar terms. In the Northern Hemisphere, this day is the longest day of the year (from sunrise to sunset). In the Southern Hemisphere, the daytime is the shortest on the day of the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere (see also #Astronomy). Occurs within the 5th month of the Japanese Lunar Calendar. According to the constant air method that is currently widespread, it is around June 21 when the sun's right angle is 90 degrees (corresponding to the origin of the giant Cancer in the zodiac signs). In the calendar, it is the day when it happens, but in astronomy, the moment is called the summer solstice, and the day including it is called the summer solstice. According to the normal method, it is about June 22nd, 1/2 year (about 182.62 days) after the winter. There is also a meaning as a period, from this day to the day before the next small heat of solar term.

Season

Most of Japan is in the rainy season. It is the longest day of the year and the shortest night in the Northern Hemisphere (reversed in the Southern Hemisphere). The "Calendar Handbook" states that "the heat is extremely high and the days are long."

Date

The table shows the moment of the summer solstice (universal time) by the constant air method and the date of the summer solstice in Japan and China. The time in Japan is 9 hours after this table.

Gregorian calendar

The table shows the summer solstice of Japan from the 17th century to the 24th century according to the Gregorian calendar. The summer solstice of 2022 is June 21st. ] It can be seen that the excess from 365 days accumulates every year and is reset once every four years in a leap year (the summer solstice is after the end of February when the leap day is inserted, so the year divisible by 4 is the first). 1904-June 21st or June 22nd in 2055, but June 23rd in 1903 (only once in the past) and June 20th from 2056.

Astronomical

From spring to autumn equinox, in the northern hemisphere, the sun rises slightly northward from the east and sets slightly northward from the west. On the day of the summer solstice, the direction of sunrise (sunrise) and sunset (sunset) is the most northerly. Also, from the perspective of observers on the Tropic of Cancer, the sun on the summer solstice passes the zenith at noon. On the day of the summer solstice, the midnight sun will occur in the entire Arctic Circle north of 66.6 degrees north latitude, and the polar night will occur in the entire Antarctic Circle south of 66.6 degrees south latitude. The day with the earliest sunrise and the day with the latest sunset in a year do not match the day of the summer solstice. In Japan, the earliest sunrise is about a week before the summer solstice, and the latest sunset is about a week after the summer solstice. Also, in the Southern Hemisphere, the relationship between day and night is reversed from that in the Northern Hemisphere, so apart from the astronomical summer solstice, it is customary to refer to "the day with the longest day and the shortest night of the year" as the summer solstice. I may call it. In other words, the day when the Southern Hemisphere reaches the summer solstice in the customary sense is astronomically the day of the winter solstice.

Customs

In the Northern Hemisphere, it is said to be a day of lust, and according to Swedish folklore, many children are born nine months after the midsummer holiday, which celebrates the summer solstice. In northern Greece, there is folklore that when an unmarried woman puts her belongings under a fig tree, she dreams of her future husband by the magic of the summer solstice. In Poland, there is a legend that people fall in love on the night of "Ivan Kupala Day", a Slavic holiday. The summer solstice festival in Stonehenge, England, is derived from Druidism and is said to be meaningful in celebrating the encounter between male and female gods. In Japan, the summer solstice is the busiest time of farming, and there seems to be no national custom. However, there are the following customs for each region. In Shizuoka prefecture, it is customary to eat winter melon. A wind that makes shaobing with new wheat and offers it to God