Castle tower

Article

January 18, 2022

Tenshu is the name of a symbolic building built in a castle after the Warring States period in Japan. It is an academic term of Japanese architecture. The slang term is Tenshukaku. It is sometimes used as a Japanese translation of "keep tower," which is a symbolic architecture of European castles.

Outline

The castle tower of Japanese castles is rarely used as a living space throughout the Edo period, with the exception of Azuchi Castle (Mr. Oda) and Osaka Castle (Mr. Toyotomi) in the Tensho period, which were used as houses. In the castle towers built by the early Edo period such as Himeji Castle and Kumamoto Castle, there are cases where living facilities such as kitchens with wells, toilets, and tatami mat rooms were installed, but the castle owners are Honmaru, Ninomaru, Sannomaru, etc. The castle tower was often used as a storehouse, as it was used for political affairs and daily life in the palace built in. At the beginning of the Edo period, there was an example of a tower that had the name of the castle tower when it was notified to the Tokugawa Shogunate. Sometimes. There are two to five layers in appearance, and at the end of the Azuchi-Momoyama era, it was positioned as the final defense base, and it was often built in the main enclosure. In the main enclosure, a castle tower was built to further surround the castle tower, and this castle tower was called the castle tower, the castle tower, the castle tower, or the castle tower. By the way, building a castle tower or turret is called "raising". Depending on the castle, a small multiple tower is called a small castle tower, a deputy castle tower, or a medium castle tower that is about the size of a small castle tower. Sometimes. When there are them, a particularly large castle tower is often called a large castle tower. The turret attached to the main tower is called the Tsukeyagura, but the turret attached to the castle tower is called the Tsukeyagura. It is also called an attached turret or an attached turret. The castle tower is counted as a "ki" like a turret, but it may also be counted as a "building" like a general house.

Notation and name

The Chinese character notation for "tenshu" can also be applied to "lord," "lord," and "heavenly lord." "Tenshukaku" is a popular name that came to be seen around the Meiji era. "Tenshu" is used in the academic terminology of architecture. There are various theories about the origin of the name "Tenshu". Here are some of them. The theory that Teishakuten is derived from the Buddhist idea of ​​Mt. Meru, which hosted the heavens on Mt. Meru surrounded by the outer Mt. The theory derived from the Christian idea that the heavenly lord (Deo, Deus) was enshrined in the tower. The theory is that the lord of Gifu Castle was the beginning, and Nobunaga Oda asked Sakugen Shuryo to name the four-story palace at the foot of Gifu Castle (Miyagami theory). It was called "lord" or "lord" in the sense of a building that protects the main hall (guardian), and later the word "lord" changed to "heaven". The names of "large castle tower" and "small castle tower" are "Ou" and "Ko" in the "Kinjo Onkoroku" Hoza paperback book, and "Woho" and "Ko" in the Tsurumai library book. The readings are "outenshu" and "kotenshu". Also, in "Kinjo Onkoroku", the notation of "large castle tower" is practically only one example in the part that talked about general theory, and in the Owari clan, "main tower" was called instead of "large castle tower".

Function

The castle tower is a symbol of Ichijo. The castle tower first has the function of a military facility and a fortress. Of the castle tower

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