Natural monuments (Tennenkinenbutsu, English: Natural monument, German: Naturaldenkmal, Middle: Natural monument) are monuments related to natural monuments such as animals, plants, geology and minerals. In contrast to natural monuments, monuments related to human cultural activities are called cultural monuments (human monuments, Germany: Kulturdenkmal).
In Japan, it is designated based on the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties and the Cultural Properties Protection Ordinance of each local government. In South Korea and North Korea, a system of natural monuments has been established based on the "Historic Sites, Places of Interest Natural Monuments Preservation Law" enforced under the administration of Japan. In addition, Western European countries such as Germany, the United States, and Switzerland, where the idea of protecting natural monuments has developed, do not have a system for designating species, but they do have a system for protecting natural monuments.
History and background
Behind the development of natural monuments and their conservation ideas is the growing movement to protect nature due to the progress of destruction of nature following the modernization after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.
The term natural monument is said to be the first time German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt used Naturdenkmal in his book "Tropical Journey of the New World" in 1800 (Kansei 12). There is. Humboldt said to a tree called Zaman der Guayre in Venezuela, South America, with a height of 18m, a diameter of 9m, and a branch of 59m. You will be punished. " French writer François-Rene de Chateaubrian also used a natural monument in his book "Rene" in 1802. Regarding natural monuments at that time, Shinada (1972) stated that "although the term" natural monument "was coined, the need for protection was not recognized and was not particularly noticed by the general public." The idea of protecting natural monuments developed with the promotion of the nature conservation movement at that time, and in 1898 the House of Representatives of the Kingdom of Prussian first took up the protection of "natural monuments" equivalent to natural monuments in the parliament, and in 1906. The establishment of the "Pluisen Natural Monument Conservation and Management Institute" and the "Activity Principles of the Institute" were established, and the term "natural monument" was officially used. In addition, with the development of nature conservation movements in Western countries such as the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and the United States, the concept of natural monuments has emerged and has been the subject of protection.
In Japan, Manabu Miyoshi (Professor, The University of Tokyo) introduced Naturdenkmal using the term "natural monument". In 1906 (Meiji 39), Miyoshi introduced the situation of cutting famous trees in Japan and the idea of protecting natural monuments in Europe and the United States in the paper "Necessity of cutting and preserving famous trees", and the following year the paper The necessity of protecting and preserving natural monuments is explained in "Necessity of Preservation of Natural Monuments and Preservation Measures" and "Preservation and Conservation of Natural Monuments". Miyoshi wrote in his book "Natural Monuments" published in 1915 (Taisho 4) that "things that have existed in the land since ancient times and remain natural or are almost unaffected by humans, that is, Natural forests, natural wilderness or unique geology, rocks, animals, etc. ”and the definition of natural monuments. In 1911 (Meiji 44), the "Proposal for the Preservation of Historical Sites and Scenic Beauty Natural Monuments" was submitted to the Aristocratic Institute, and in 1919 (Taisho 8), the "Historic Sites, Place of Scenic Beauty Natural Monuments Preservation Law" was enacted. Conservation administration for natural monuments has begun. The law was abolished in 1950 (Showa 25) and was taken over by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties.