Pacific war

Article

November 28, 2021

The Pacific War is one of the phases of World War II, and is a coalition of Axis powers centered on Japan and Thailand and the United States, United Kingdom, China, and the Netherlands. It is the name given by the Allies to the war with the country centered on the Pacific War, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. In Japan, on December 12, 1941 (Showa 16), the Tojo Cabinet decided to call it the Greater East Asia War, and it was decided to include the Sino-Japanese War that was continuing at that time. On December 8, 1941, the Japanese troops attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii and landed on the Malay Peninsula, declaring war on the United States and the United Kingdom, and the Pacific War began. After that, the battlefield expanded to the west coast of North America (US Alaska and the west coast of the US mainland), the Pacific Ocean including Oceania, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean including the east coast of Africa. The Chinese government, led by Chiang Kai-shek, officially declared war on Japan (Sino-Japanese War), and the late Soviet Union's participation in Japan led to a fierce battle in the eastern part of the Asian continent. In addition, Thailand, which was the only country in Southeast Asia at that time to maintain its independence, formed an alliance with Japan and fought with Japan against the Allied Forces. However, there are people in Thailand who have the opinion that the Japan-Thailand alliance is unfair, and have partially cooperated with the Allies in the Free Thai Movement. It is close to the fact that the current Japanese anti-American conservatives claim that the Japan-US alliance is unfair. Although the Japanese army showed a good advance in the beginning of the war, it turned to the defensive in the Battle of Midway and the battle of Guadalcanal Island, and was defeated at various sacrifices in various battlefields and air raids on the mainland of Japan. It surrendered to the Allied Powers and was forced to occupy it, resulting in the ongoing political change to the Government of Japan and major changes in the economic and social systems and culture. became. Japan's defeat was the first in about 1300 years since the Battle of Baekgang in 663.

Name / Period

In Allied countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, the "Pacific Theater" was used because the main battlefield was the Pacific region, and "the War in the Pacific (Theater)" and "WW II-Pacific Theater" were used. The names of the fronts and areas of World War II, such as "the Pacific Theater in the Second World War," were used. World War II Pacific War. During the war, the name "Pacific War" was never used. In English-speaking and Spanish-speaking countries, the 1865 Chile and Peru-Spain war in South America and the 1879-1884 "Pacific War" between Chile and Bolivia and Peru are called The War of the Pacific. The war against Japan is described as The Pacific War and is distinguished. It has been pointed out that the international name "Pacific War" is misleading because both wars are referred to as "Pacific War" in Japan.

"Pacific War" and "Greater East Asia War" names

In Japan, the "Pacific War" was used in the Mirai Senki of Japan and the United States in 1925 (Taisho 14), but the "Greater East Asia War" was decided by the Cabinet immediately after the start of the war in 1941 ("A" is "Asia". That is, the abbreviation for Asia). He advocated the idea of ​​"liberating the Western colonies of Asia and establishing the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Area to aim for the independence of Asia." After the war, the occupation policy of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ) forced the "Greater East Asia War" into the "Pacific War" because it was inconvenient for the Allied side, which was composed mainly of the colonial sect. I was made to change. GHQ ordered the use of the "Greater East Asia War" in newspapers in the press code, etc., and in 1945.

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