A minority ethnic group is an ethnic group consisting of a relatively minority when some framework such as a certain ethnic group, country, or region is composed of multiple ethnic groups. To tell.
The Japanese word "ethnicity" is a polysemous and ambiguous concept. Sometimes it refers to the English ethnic group, sometimes it refers to the nation, and sometimes it refers to the German volk. The term minority is also often confusing because of the ambiguity of what is meant by "ethnicity". The concept of ethnic minorities is meaningless unless we define what constitutes a whole and show that they are relatively minorities within that framework.
The most common use of the concept of ethnic minorities is to use the nation state as a framework for the ``whole'' in which minorities are compared to the dominant majority, who are often treated as average citizens. This is the usage of calling an ethnic group that is a minority ethnic group. These minorities may range in population from hundreds to millions. However, there are many cases where differences are found in various cultural attributes and institutional differences from the average citizen or the ethnic group that constitutes the dominant majority, and there are many common issues.
Ethnic minorities have various cultural attributes (such as shared history and language). However, they are surrounded by the majority ethnic group, and the national system and education are often based on that. Under such circumstances, how to maintain their own identity is a common concern among many ethnic minorities.
Relations between ethnic minorities and majorities and nation-states are manifold. Like the Kurds, they boast a population large enough to have a state, and even though they are the majority in a specific area, they do not have an ethnic state, so there are cases where they fight for independence. . Like the Miao, who have a similarly large population but lack unity, they sometimes coexist under the influence of the majority ethnic group in each country. Some ethnic groups, such as the Ainu in Japan and the Manchu people in China, are gradually losing their uniqueness due to the overwhelming influence of the majority ethnic group. Some ethnic minorities have maintained their uniqueness without being assimilated by their ethnic groups, and have had a strong social influence even though they are minorities.
Indigenous peoples often form part of a nation-state as minorities. In many cases, these people were rejected as 'pagan' or 'barbaric' along with cultures and histories that differed from the dominant race, but in recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need for policies to protect them. However, when the unique culture is in the process of being lost, the problem arises that it is difficult to find a bearer of it, regardless of the policies of the nation-state.
Situation in Japan
While the majority of people in Japan are said to be of the Yamato ethnic group, there are also groups of ethnic minorities. For the problems faced by each group, see "Ethnic Problems in Japan" and each article. The Ainu are the only indigenous people officially recognized by the Japanese government.
Ainu - A minority ethnic group in Hokkaido, the Kuril Islands, and Karafuto.
Uilta - A minority ethnic group in Sakhalin.
Nivkh - ethnic minority of Karafuto.
There is an idea that the inhabitants of the former Ryukyu Kingdom territory, such as Okinawa Prefecture and the Amami Islands (Kagoshima Prefecture), are regarded as the Ryukyu race.