Mongol invasion


July 5, 2022

The Mongol invasion was twice by the Mongol Empire (Yuan Dynasty) and its nation, Koryo, which ruled East and North Asia around the Mongolian Plateau and the Chinese continent at that time in the middle of the Kamakura period in Japan. It is the name of the invasion of Japan that took place over the years. The first is the role of Bun'ei (Bunei no Eki, 1274), and the second is the role of Koan (Kouan no Eki, 1281). With the invasion of Mongol. In particular, the fleet dispatched to Japan for the second role of Koan was the largest fleet in the world at that time.

Japanese name

The two invasions of Japan by the Mongol Empire (Yuan Dynasty) and the Koryo Allied Forces were described in Japanese literature during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods as the invasion of Mongolia, the invasion of thieves, the Mongolian battle, and the foreign battle. The name "alien thief" was used to refer to the forces that invaded from foreign countries other than Japan, and in the literature around the Kamakura period such as "Yawata Fudokun", it was written by Toi Invasion and Empress Jingu. It is also used for the Sankan subjugation. In addition, the name "thug" was also used. In addition, the first invasion in 1274 was described as the Bun'ei battle, and the second invasion in 1281 was described as the Koan battle. The name "Mongol invasion" is the first example of "Dainihonshi", which Tokugawa Mitsukuni started compiling in the Edo period. After that, historical books using "Mongol" appeared, such as "Mongol invasion" by Nagamura Ryo in the 18th century, "Mongol invasion" by Masahide Komiyama, and "Mongol invasion" by Ohashi Tokuan in the 19th century. The name "Mongol" became popular.

The name Mongol invasion

"Original" At the beginning of the Mongol Empire's book, which was created by Kublai Khan, the fifth emperor of the Mongol Empire, there is "Emperor of the Mongol Empire", which was the self-proclaimed Chinese word of the Mongol Empire. Translated) is seen for the first time. These names were given to Japan in the New Year of 1268 (5th year of Bun'ei and 5th year of Zhiyuan era) when a messenger dispatched from Goryeo at the behest of Kublai communicated the existence of "Mongolia" verbally and in writing in Dazaifu. It became known to the side. The name "Mongolia" is also used in the diaries of public houses at that time, such as "Shinshinin Kampakuki" and "Kannakuki". On December 18, 1271 (8th year of Bunei and 8th year of Zhiyuan), Kublai changed the national name to "Omoto" in Chinese ("Dai-Ön Yeke Monγol Ulus" in Mongolian). Again, in Japan during the Kamakura era, the name "Mongolia" was common, so names such as "Yuan and Omoto" were not used. In the Edo period, Chinese books such as "History of Yuan" were imported, and the name "Gen", which is the abbreviation of the Yuan dynasty in the Ming dynasty, and the nickname for nomadic forces such as "Hu lord" and "Hu yuan" to refer to Kublai. (Hensho) will also be used. "寇" "Table" means "foreign enemy" and is a noun that expresses "table", that is, "invading". Shoji Kawazoe, a historian, said that the reason why this expression appeared in the late Edo period was that Qing was defeated by the British Empire in the Opium Wars and that Western power vessels frequently visited the waters near Japan. It is pointed out that there was an increase in "external consciousness" toward "outer 夷", and that the past invasion of Mongolia was also seen in that context. In Rai Sanyo's "Nihon Gaishi," which was popular at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, he heard about the role of Koan, "Kubilai, my messenger again. Approximately 100,000 Hu and Han soldiers will be united, and a sword tiger will be used as a general to enter. "