August 8, 2022

Karafuto (Karafuto), Karafuto Island (Russian: Сахалин) is an island located in the southwestern part of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, east of Eurasia. In some cases, it is included in the Japanese archipelago in a broad sense. It is long and narrow with a maximum width of 160km from north to south and a maximum width of 160km from north to south. With an area of ​​76,400 km2, it is the 22nd largest island in the world, slightly smaller than Hokkaido (78,073 km2), which ranks 21st in the world, and is also Russia's largest island. Since Karafuto has undergone different histories in the north and south, the area north of the 50th parallel north latitude is referred to as 'North Sakhalin' (or 'North Sakhalin'), and the area south of it is referred to as 'South Karafuto'.


From 1905 (Meiji 38) to 1945 (Showa 20), with the 50°N latitude Sakhalin) was occupied by the Soviet Union as "Sakhalin (Russian: Сахалин)". Under Japanese rule, 'Karafutocho' was used as the administrative district name for southern Karafuto and its affiliated islands. At the end of World War II, following the Battle of Okinawa in Okinawa Prefecture, the last battle of mainland Japan (mainland) was fought (Battle of Karafuto in August 1945). After the war, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation effectively control southern Karafuto. The population is about 500,000 and the largest city is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (population about 200,000. Japanese name: Toyohara), which is also the capital of Sakhalin Oblast. The Sakhalin Project is currently underway.


One theory is that the name "Karafuto" comes from the Ainu language calling this island "kamuy kar put ya mosir". In the Ainu language, this means ``an island created by the gods at the mouth of the river'', and it is said that it was named so because it is located beyond the mouth of the Black Dragon River (Amur River). In the Karafuto Ainu language, it is called Yankemoshir, which means "land land". In the Hokkaido Ainu language, it is called Karapto. A long time ago, it appeared as 'Karato no Shima' in the Matsumae clan's history book "Silla no Record", which was completed in 1646 (Shoho 3rd year), and 'Karato no Shima' is also drawn in the Shoho map of Japan. In the historical materials of 1669 (Kanbun 9), the notation of 'Karafuto' ('Hongen Jogaku', 'Tsugaru Istoushi') and 'Karafuto Island' ('Ezo Uprising Chushinsho') can be confirmed. In 1700 (Genroku 13), "Matsumaejima Gocho" mentions "Karatoshima". In the historical materials of Masamitsu Kuunen, who went to Ezochi in 1704, there are many descriptions of ``Karafuto'' and ``Karafuto Island'', but ``Karafuto Island'', ``Karafuto Island'', and ``Karato no Shima''. ” can also be seen. In 1783 (Tenmei 3), "Kagami Nishikatsumori Kakoku Fusetsuko" states that ``There is an Oshima called Sakariin in the north of Karafuto.'' It depicts "Sakariin" as an island. In "Sangoku Tsuran Illustrated" in 1785, 'Karafuto Island' was drawn as a continental peninsula, and 'Sagariin' was drawn separately as 'the most powerful country in the middle of the North Sea.' After 1809 (the 6th year of Bunka), it was also called North Ezochi in contrast to East and West Ezochi (before that, it was included in West Ezochi). After that, when the Meiji government set up the Hokkaido Development Commission, the kanji notation "Karafuto" was decided. The name ``Sakhalin'' (formerly written as ``Sagalen'') was coined by the Qing emperor when he ordered three Jesuit monks to survey the Qing Dynasty. Saharyan Ura) I heard that there is an island on the opposite bank of the estuary, so I called it Saharyan Ura in Manchu.