November 28, 2021

A mother is a female parent. Generally referred to as a mother, and sometimes referred to as "mother," "mother," "bag," etc. The origin of the Chinese character "mother" is a hieroglyph with two breasts added to "female", which means that it is a sucker and a lactating child. The scene where the name "mother" is used When the child calls on the mother When a mother points to her and tells her When a husband says his wife, when he says as a child's mother When referring to the mother of another person in a conversation. It is also used for "mother of ...". In the case of 2 and 3, the speaker has the characteristic of imitating himself as a child. In the case of 4, it may refer to a female who is a collateral ancestor such as an aunt (mother of a cousin) or an aunt of a cousin (mother of a cousin). In infant language, the mother is sometimes called "mama", and the word "mama" develops from the image of the mother and the meaning is diversified as described in another item. Blood-related mothers are "real mothers" and "living mothers", adopted mothers are "adopted mothers", and mothers are bereaved or divorced and their fathers are remarried, but if they are not adopted by their mothers, they are "stepmothers". It is called haha).

"Mother" as a metaphor

A woman or inanimate object who played an important role in the establishment or development of some kind of business (independence from other countries, religious activities, important inventions, etc.) is sometimes called "mother of ...". In addition, fortune-tellers who have become a kind of charismatic existence as a counselor in the area are sometimes called "mothers of ...". A female who is entrusted with taking care of the meals and general life of the dormitory students in the dormitory is called a "dormitory mother". The queen and empress are sometimes called "national mothers".

Hormones related to maternal behavior

Prolactin Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly produced and secreted by the pituitary gland, and it has been confirmed in various animal species that it promotes mammary gland development and induces maternal behavior. Mammals have prolactin receptors, which mediate the transmission of prolactin in the mammary gland and the like. In the rat brain, the expression level of prolactin receptor increases from the latter half of pregnancy, and thereafter, it is maintained at a high level during lactation. When the infant is released during lactation, the expression level decreases rapidly, and when the infant is returned, the expression level increases again. Thus, expression of prolactin receptors in the brain is closely associated with maternal behavior. Prolactin is not a hormone peculiar to females but is also secreted by males, and there is a difference in action between males and females. The standard value for adult males is 3.6 to 16.3 ng / ml, and the standard value for adult females is 4.1 to 28.9 ng / ml. If the standard value is exceeded in males, decreased libido, sexual dysfunction such as impotence, absenteeism or oligospermia, etc. will be tested. On the other hand, in women, if hyperprolactinemia occurs for some reason other than the pregnancy and puerperium, ovulation is impaired along with milk leakage, leading to amenorrhea and infertility. Oxytocin Oxytocin, a hormone secreted by the mother when the baby sucks the nipple, is also called a love hormone because it gives the mother a feeling of well-being and ecstasy.

Maternal Nursing Mother

Nursing has a field called "maternal nursing". Maternity Nursing maternity refers to the characteristics of the physiological and physical functions that a woman has to "give birth and raise the next generation", not only the biological characteristics but also the process of female growth. �

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