Battle of Okinawa
July 5, 2022
The Battle of Okinawa (Battle of Okinawa) or the Battle of Okinawa (Battle of Okinawa) was held in 1945 (Showa 20) at the end of World War II. It is a general term for battles that took place with the military. The operation name on the Allied side is Operation Iceberg (English: Operation Iceberg). In Ryukyu, it is also called Ucinaaikusa (Uchina
The Battle of Okinawa began on April 1, 1945, with the main battles taking place on the main island of Okinawa, with organized battles starting on April 2 and ending on June 23. The purpose of the Allied Forces was to secure an air base for bombing the mainland of Japan, which could be jointly established with Mariana's base for the capture of the mainland of Japan, and to secure a supply base for the invasion of the mainland of Japan. The purpose of the Japanese Army is to aim for a "one-shot peace" in which the Imperial Headquarters (mainly the Japanese Navy General Staff) will give a big blow to the Allied Forces by an air attack centered on the Special Attack Units and conclude peace under favorable conditions. On the other hand, the local 32nd Army Headquarters was in an inconsistent situation with the intention of a time-earning "rubble stone operation" (endurance battle) for the mainland decisive battle that was envisioned at that time. The 32nd Army avoids the defense at the water's edge that failed in the Battle of Saipan, etc. (Currently part of Naha City) It was a fierce battle in the north. At sea, the Japanese aviation unit centered on the special attack corps repeated attacks based on the decisive battle concept of the Imperial Headquarters, and the "Okinawa special attack" by the remaining Japanese Navy fleet such as the battleship "Yamato" was also carried out.
At the end of May 1945 (Showa 20), the Shuri Command of the 32nd Army fell, and the Japanese Army withdrew to the south, but lost its organizational strength by the end of June, and on June 23, Commander Mitsuru Ushijima. Officials decide themselves. The mopping-up battle continued after that, and the Allied Forces declared the end of the Battle of Okinawa on July 2, and the final signing ceremony for the surrender of the Okinawa Defense Force was held on September 7.
Large troops from both camps were deployed in land, sea and air. Commander-in-Chief Buckner, commander-in-chief of the 10th Army, who was the commander-in-chief of the US Army of the Allied Forces, died in the attack of the Japanese Army. It became one of the fiercest battlefields in the war. The number of ammunition and ammunition used was 2,716,691 on the Allied Forces side alone. In addition, 60,018 shells, 392,304 grenades, 20,359 rockets, and just under 30 million machine bullets were fired. It is described as "Typhoon of Steel" because the naval gunfire was so intense that the terrain changed. The remaining unexploded ordnance amounted to 23 tons even in 2015, 70 years later, and will continue to be processed by the Ground Self-Defense Force. Six 1-ton bombs have been found since 1972 (Showa 47), when they returned to the mainland.
It is estimated that 200,000 people were killed in the ground battle in Okinawa, including both armies and civilians. According to the March 1976 announcement by the Support Division of the Okinawa Prefecture Living Welfare Department, the breakdown is 188,136 dead / missing on the Japanese side, 65,908 regular soldiers from outside Okinawa, and 122,228 from Okinawa. Of these, 94,000 are civilians. The number of injured on the Japanese side is unknown. The population of Okinawa Prefecture before the war was about 490,000, which means that about one in four Okinawans died. The U.S. military had 20,195 dead and missing, surpassing the maximum of 19,000 killed in the Battle of the Bulge, one of the biggest battles on the Western Front in December 1944. 55,162 casualties, combat trauma and illness.