Admiral of the Navy (UK)
The British Admiral of the Navy is the highest rank of five-star officers in the Royal Navy (established in 1688). The NATO rank is OF-10, which is equivalent to Marshal Army (Royal Air Force) and Marshal Air Force (Royal Air Force). With the exception of the honorary appointment, no one has been appointed Marshal of the Navy since 1995.
The origin of the Navy Marshal dates back to John de Bicham, who was appointed "Southern, Northern, and Western Navy Commander of the King" on July 18, 1360. This appointment gave an individual command of the English Navy for the first time, and later developed into a Navy Marshal. In the Age of Sail, the Navy's distinction between admirals included the fact that the fleet was divided into three units: red, white, and blue. Each unit was assigned at least one admiral, who in turn commanded the lieutenant general and major general. Nominally, all Admirals were equal, but by tradition, the White Admiral, who held the rank of the fleet in addition to the substantive role, was ranked higher.
18th and 19th centuries
The Restoration of England resulted in a general restructuring of the ranks and structures within the Navy, including the establishment of the Navy Marshal. At this time, breaking the convention (formerly known as an honorary position), the Marshal position was given to the senior Admiral of the Red Fleet. For this reason, Admiral of the Red Fleet was an Admiral of the Navy, but also had practical duties. The appointment was whole life, with a daily allowance of £ 5 and an annual allowance of £ 1,014 to hire and support employees. The marshal position was always held by only one general, and the royal flag was raised from the main mast of the ship to indicate the marshal's sitting.
In 1805, the position of Admiral of the Navy and the position of Admiral of the Red Fleet were separated, and the decree of the official bulletin "London Gazette" stated that "His Majesty the King should give the order to revive the rank of Admiral of the Red Fleet in His Navy." According to the official bulletin, 22 generals have been promoted to Admiral of the Red Fleet. Since the 19th century, the traditional constraint that only one Navy Marshal is in charge has often changed. In 1821, King George IV appointed the first Count of St. Vincent, John Jarvis, as the second marshal of the Navy to balance with the Army's first Marshal of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley. In 1830 William IV increased the number of Navy Marshal to three, but the whole life system came to an end.
Also, from 1854 to 1857, there was no Navy Marshal, the Navy's chief officer. Admiral Thomas Le Merchant-Gosselin, who was the forerunner at that time, was unable to work at sea for health reasons. Marshal was vacant until Gosselin's death and was taken over by Admiral Sir Charles Ogle in 1857 after his death.
Later, when the First Naval Road (Sir First Navy after 1904) was established as the head of the uniform group, the Navy Marshal lost that authority.
The British Navy's color-coded squadron was abolished in 1864, but the rank of Marshal remained.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was appointed Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Navy in 1954 to coincide with the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. It was the rank of the Royal New Zealand Navy and was separated from the rank of the Royal Navy.
When the Chief of the General Staff of Defense was founded in 1959, five officers in this position were appointed Marshal. Air Force reduction approved after the Cold War