Special express train

Article

November 28, 2021

The special express train (Tokube Tsukuri Koresha) is a train of the express system in the railway, and is a train type located above the express train. Limited express train (Tokukyuresha) for short, or simply limited express. Although there are some differences depending on the railway company and railway line, it is generally the name given to the train that reaches the destination earliest on that line. In addition, compared to ordinary trains, there are generally fewer stations and the driving speed is faster, so the arrival time of the section used is shorter, which is a type with express delivery. In this section, in addition to limited express trains as excellent trains (long-distance trains) that require limited express charges, the following are also handled. Limited Express Trains-Trains that used to operate on the Japanese National Railways (JNR) and do not require limited express charges (ordinary trains) "Limited Express" that does not require a limited express charge --- A train that is currently operated by Japanese private railways and is included in the general trains in a broad sense on the Japanese National Railways and JR. "Limited express" other than railway

JNR / JR special express train

History / Overview

The beginning and end of the prewar special express train

Before the special express (limited express) train was set, trains faster than express trains were sometimes classified as "fastest". Among them, the "Express 1 and 2 trains" set up between Shimbashi Station and Kobe Station on the national railway on April 16, 1906 (Meiji 39) collect the first express service fee in addition to the fare. It was positioned as the originator of the current paid limited express and express trains. The first use of the "special express" type was in June 1912 (Meiji 45) by extending the section of the "express 1 and 2 trains" mentioned above, via the Kanpu Ferry to China and Europe. As a "continental connecting train" that plays a part in international transportation to, etc., it is a 1st and 2nd train that started operation between Shimbashi Station and Shimonoseki Station (Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture). The contents of the organization were only first-class and second-class cars, and the observation car was connected at the end, so it was like promoting the "national prestige of Japan" to the outside world. When Tokyo Station opened in December 1914 (Taisho 3), the first and second trains also became the first trains at Tokyo Station. In July 1923 (Taisho 12), his 3rd and 4th trains, which consisted of only 3rd class cars, started operation in the same section. As you can see, this train was rather set up for the masses. In the Showa era, the limited express trains were given the "train nickname", and new trains were set up. .. In addition, the limited express trains before the war were set only on the lines west of Tokyo (Tokaido Main Line, Sanyo Main Line, Kagoshima Main Line, Nagasaki Main Line). Due to the intensification of the Pacific War, all of them were abolished at the end of "Fuji" in April 1944, and the limited express trains in Japan disappeared once.

Limited express train at this time

Fuji-In September 1929 (Showa 4), the Ministry of Railways, which operated the national railway at that time, named his 1st and 2nd trains "Fuji". This is the first time in Japan, and it is a public offering (see the train nickname for the public offering), and "Sakura" and "Tsubame", which will be described later, are also named from there. "Fuji" became a train representing Japan before the war, and the first-class observation car was connected at the end. In November 1942 (Showa 17), due to the opening of the Kanmon Tunnel, "Fuji" extended the operating section to Nagasaki Station, shortened it to Hakata Station the following year, and was abolished in April 1944 (Showa 19). Sakura-The 1st and 2nd trains are named "Fuji", and at the same time, the 3rd and 4th trains are named "Fuji".

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