Climbing (Tozan, English: mountain climbing, mountaineering, alpinism) seeks fun in climbing a mountain and aims to climb itself. Such a sport.
Climbing is climbing a mountain. However, mountain climbing is aimed at mountain climbing itself, and it is to find the greatest joy there and utilize it in one's life. Climbing into a mountain for collecting wild plants and animals, for geological surveys, etc. is not the purpose of mountain climbing itself, it is different.
Climbing for hunting and worship has been practiced for a long time, but these are excluded from mountaineering in the modern sense. Petrarca (14th century poet) in Italy is the first record of a mountaineering that leads to the modern meaning of mountaineering because he wanted to see the scenery from the top of the mountain. → #History
Climbing and its ideas (English: alpinism, alpinism, modern climbing) for the purpose of climbing the mountain itself began in Europe in the latter half of the 18th century. Climbing in this sense is considered a type of sport.
Alpinism English: Alpinism broadly refers to mountaineering as a whole, but in particular modern mountaineering (modern sports mountaineering) and its ideas. Modern mountaineering, which began in the latter half of the 18th century, finds joy in climbing the mountain itself, emphasizes what mountaineering gives to the mind and body, and aims to make life moisturized. Alpinism is also an idea that comprehensively cultivates the knowledge and skills of mountaineering and tries to go to the mountain as a whole personality. Modern mountaineering is a type of sport in that it has no purpose other than the act of climbing, and in this respect it differs from religious mountaineering and mountaineering for war, hunting, surveying and research.
In Japan, the number of climbers increased after the war. The number of older climbers and women is increasing, and it is said that mountaineering has become established as an outdoor sport, but the succession of distresses has become a social problem.
If you take a broad view of mountaineering, from relatively simple things such as hiking, trekking, and vertical mountaineering during the three seasons (when there is no snow), snow mountaineering, mountain skiing, mountain climbing, bush rowing, rock climbing, ice climbing, etc. There are various forms of mountaineering depending on the method, technique, difficulty level, season, time, etc., such as free climbing and trail running, which are difficult to climb and require skill and experience.
I will explain from the stage before the start of modern mountaineering (which corresponds to a kind of "prehistory" from the viewpoint of modern mountaineering).
Climbing a mountain seems to have been done since prehistoric times. At the border between Italy and Austria, Iceman, a male mummy about 5,300 years ago, was found in the Oetz valley (3,210 m above sea level). It's unclear why Iceman climbed so far, but he certainly did. Other mountaineering activities such as hunting were also carried out, but these are excluded from today's mountaineering. Also, in many religions, mountains are the object of worship and worship, and in some cases they are considered to be gods themselves, so mountain climbing is recorded in various scriptures and legends.
Before the Middle Ages
In 218 BC, Hannibal is said to have crossed the mountains of Pyrenees and the Alps with 60,000 soldiers and 37 elephants during the Second Punic War.
In 125, Empire Hadrian of the Roman Empire climbed Etna volcano to see the rising sun.
Renaissance period to the first half of the 18th century
The spirit of modern Europe