Encyclopedia

Article

December 7, 2021

An encyclopedia (Hyakajiten, Luo: encyclopedia) is a book that collects knowledge covering all subjects, arranges it by department, alphabetical order, Japanese syllabary order, and Iroha order, and describes the explanation. matter. Sometimes written as "encyclopedia".

Overview

According to the 7th edition of Kojien, it is a "book that collects and records knowledge covering all subjects such as academics, arts, society, home, etc., arranges it by department or in alphabetical order, and adds commentary." According to Daijisen, "a book that arranges items in the format of a dictionary and adds explanations to matters in all fields covered by human knowledge."

Name

"Encyclopedia" in "Encyclopedia" generally means "various fields". It used to be called "Encyclopedia", but Heibonsha published "Encyclopedia" in 1931, and the notation of "Encyclopedia" has been established since then. It is also called "Encyclopedia", but this name is a little old-fashioned. In particular, it is often referred to as the encyclopedia, which refers to the work of the French encyclopedia, which will be described later. In Chinese, it is called "Leishu", but "Encyclopedia" is the official notation. English for encyclopedia: encyclopedia is a word derived from the Greek word "ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία" and means "in a circle" ἐγκύκλιος (enkyklios: en + kyklios), or "in + kyklios" in English. It is a combination of "circ") and παιδεία (paideia Paideia), which means "education" and "child-rearing". It was used in the sense of traditional knowledge.

Appearance

Number of turns

In a large encyclopedia, there are dozens of books, but there is also a one-volume book that summarizes the description compactly. For the very majority, some have separate indexes. In addition to the index, some maps exist as a single volume. In addition to these, there are also separate encyclopedias that are published regularly. Partwork encyclopedias are published on various themes such as movies, medicine, English, Japanese history, and world heritage, and when they are filed at the time of completion, an encyclopedia on that theme is established. For more information...

Medium

Until around 2000, the mainstream medium for encyclopedias was paper books (printed materials), but after that, in addition to books, electronic dictionaries (recorded on a built-in IC with a portable dedicated device), There are various forms such as CD-ROM / DVD-ROM, memory card, USB memory, and web. Traditional encyclopedias such as the "Encyclopedia Britannica", which were originally printed on paper, are now often offered on the Web. Wikipedia, which is open source content written by general users themselves, is famous as a service developed exclusively for the Web from the beginning.

Field

An encyclopedia is basically a collection of knowledge in various fields or fields, as explained in the explanations of Hiroshien and Daijisen. Encyclopedias and the Encyclopedia Britannica also deal with such a range of knowledge. (This is common, but when you dare to distinguish it from the one described below, it is sometimes called a "comprehensive encyclopedia"). However, there are also encyclopedias that gather various knowledge in a specific area of ​​specialization in advance. For example, in "Pharmacy Encyclopedia", "Philosophy Encyclopedia", etc., "Specialized Encyclopedia"

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