Holy Roman Empire
German Nation's Holy Roman Empire
Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation (German) Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanicae (Latin)
National Anthem: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (German) God save Kaiser Franz (1797-1806) Territorial transition
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, English: Holy Roman Empire) was once a ``German nation'' ruled by an emperor who called himself ``King of Germany''. ”. A multi-ethnic nation that existed mainly in present-day Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and northern Italy.
Founded in the 9th and 10th centuries, it survived until 1806. At first it was a united state, but from the 14th century, it gradually stopped functioning as a state, and the non-German territories under its control were lost one after another. Added. The Treaty of Westphalia in the 17th century left the Holy Roman Empire in name only, while the more than 300 kingdoms, principalities, free imperial cities, ecclesiastical lands, principalities, counties and other minor nobility territories within the empire were de facto independent. As a result, the character of the Germans as a national federation became clear. Only the Habsburgs, who had a monopoly on the imperial throne and were based in the Grand Duchy of Austria, were considered an empire.
In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Napoleon Bonaparte and the throne of the empire passed to the Austrian Empire. The territories under the control of the Kingdom of Prussia seceded from the empire, and all other minor states came under the umbrella of the Rhine Confederation. After the fall of the empire, the principles of the balance of power were inherited by the Viennese system.
The Holy Roman Empire was a medieval state or region that recognized an emperor supported by the Pope. It began with the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 AD. Conceptually, it was one with the ancient Roman Empire, and it was also a concept that included the Catholic Church. The Emperor, the protector of the Church and the Pope, divided supreme authority with the Pope, and the Emperor's authority extended through the Church to all of Western Europe. However, the real power of the emperor was restricted under the feudal system, and the areas where the emperor was directly ruled were limited to Germany and northern Italy after the coronation of Otto I in 962. The name "Holy Roman Empire" came from 1254, when this trend of division became stronger, and until then it was simply called "Roman Empire" or "Empire". The Holy Roman Empire in the early modern period was close to a national federation composed of multiple ethnic groups, even if it was limited to the region ruled by the emperor, and at the end of the period, Napoleon even lost its suzerainty over Northern Italy, effectively becoming the German Confederation. It was over. It became difficult to grasp the whole picture of the empire, and the French philosopher Voltaire, in his historical philosophy, On the manners and spirit of the nations, described the early modern Holy Roman Empire as ``not holy, not Roman, not empire. ” he criticized.
In Japan, the coronation of Otto I in 962 is commonly regarded as the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire, and world history education in high schools inherits this view. However, it is common in German historiography to regard the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 AD as the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire.
Imperial history is divided into three periods. i.e.
The "Roman Empire" period (800-10th century) from the coronation of Charlemagne, King of the Franks, to the High Middle Ages
The "Imperial" period (962-1254) from the coronation of Otto the Great to the end of the Staufen dynasty
From the late Middle Ages to 1806