Legislative Yuan (Republic of China)

Article

May 20, 2022

Legislative Yuan (Chinese: Legislative Yuan, Pinyin: Lì fǎ Yuàn) is the legislative body of the Republic of China. A unicameral parliament that is said to be the "nation's highest legislative body" (Article 62 of the Constitution of the Republic of China).

Overview

A unicameral legislative body established with the Executive Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan, and Control Yuan based on Sun Yat-sen's "separation of powers" theory, the founder of the Republic of China. A member of the Legislative Yuan is called a legislative committee member. Originally, the National Assembly, the highest institution with the right to appoint and dismiss the Vice President and the right to amend the Constitution, existed in the Republic of China, but since it was abolished in 2005, the Legislative Yuan became the only supreme legislative body in both name and reality. In addition, from 1948 to 1991, most of the members were elected in mainland China, but since 1992, they are composed and re-elected only by voters elected mainly from Taiwan Island. Is the highest legislative body in the Taiwan area of ​​the Republic of China (Taiwan, Separate Customs, Kinmen, Maso). It has a two-session system from February to May and from September to December. Currently, the number of members is 113, and the term of office is 4 years.

Authority

Like the legislative bodies of each country, it has the right to vote on bills and budgets, the right to approve treaties, and the right to propose constitutional amendments. Is a feature. Personnel consent rights for the Deputy Justice Director, Lord High Chancellor (Judge of the Constitutional Court), Deputy President of the Examination Yuan, and Deputy Inspector General: The president is the appointed person. Right to vote on a vote of no confidence in the President of the Executive Yuan (Article 4.1 of the Constitutional Extension Article): Unlike the Japanese Cabinet Building of No Confidence, which expresses distrust to the entire Cabinet, only the President of the Executive Yuan is eligible. In response, the President has the right to dissolve the Legislative Yuan. Right to propose a dismissal plan for the deputy president (Article 2, Paragraph 9 of the Articles of Extension of the Constitution): If a proposal is made by a quarter or more of the total number of legislative members and passed by two-thirds or more, a referendum on the dismissal plan can be held. Right to vote for impeachment of the vice president (Article 4, Paragraph 7, Article 2, Paragraph 10 of the Constitutional Rehabilitation Article): Proposals of more than half of the total number of legislative members, and when passed by more than two-thirds of the total number of members You can request an impeachment hearing (equivalent to the large court of the Constitutional Court). Right to change territory (Article 2.5 of the Constitutional Extension Article): When a proposal is made by one-quarter or more of the total number of legislative members, attendance by three-quarters or more, and passed by three-quarters or more of attending members. In addition, approval by referendum is required.

History

In 1928 (17th year of the Republic of China), the Kuomintang completed the unification of China and shifted from the military administration period to the training period, and it was established in the capital Nanjing. Initially, the number of employees was 49 (term of office was 2 years), but the number was increased to 194 from the 4th term. During the anti-Japanese war, his term was extended to 14 years, during which time he enacted basic codes such as civil law and criminal law. 1947 (36th year of the Republic of China) Enforcement of the Constitution of the Republic of China. The following year, in 1948, the first legislative election under the constitutional government was held, and 760 first legislative members were elected. However, the Government of the Republic of China (National Government), led by the Kuomintang, moved to Taipei in 1949 due to a civil war with the Chinese Communist Party, so the Legislative Yuan also moved to Taipei in 1950. At this time, more than 380 of the first legislative committee members moved to Taiwan. The term of office of the legislative committee was set to three years (Article 65 of the Constitution), but after the relocation of the capital to Taipei, the first legislative committee was not re-elected until it resigned in 1991 due to the suspension of constitutional administration and martial law. Was ridiculed. However, the number of people was increased by 11 in the 1969 by-election, and in 1972, a fixed number of 51 Taiwanese elections was set up for a three-year term (Wang Jin-Ping, who was the director of the Legislative Yuan from 1999 to 2016, was elected in 1975. ). This re-election quota was expanded to a fixed number of 130 in 1989, and continued to coexist with the "Mannen Senator" elected on the continent. In 1989 (78th year of the Republic of China), democracy was legalized by the first re-election after the lifting of martial law.