First Middle East War

Article

May 21, 2022

The First Middle East War (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות, Arabic: حرب 1948) was a war between Arab countries and Israel from 1948 to 1949. Also known as the Palestinian War. The Israeli name is "War of Independence" (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות), and the Arab name is "Ann Nakuba (catastrophe)" (Arabic: النكبة). Israel won the war and solidified its position as an independent nation.

Background

Since World War I, there have been sporadic clashes between Palestinians and the Jews who settled in Palestine, such as the Wailing Wall. During World War II, the Jews cooperated with Britain to attack Germany, but after the end of the war they began an armed struggle against Britain, who was reluctant to build a Jewish state in Palestine.

UN resolution

From the latter half of 1945, armed struggles by Jewish organizations Lehi, Irgun Zwei Leumi, and Palmach became active in Palestine. Britain dispatched army troops to carry out security activities, but the results were slow. There, on June 29, 1946, a Jewish organization was detained in a mass detention, arresting more than 3,000 people. However, the Jewish organization Ilgun counterattacked it and on July 22 it bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, where the British Army headquarters is located (King David Hotel Bombing Incident). This killed a large number of HQ personnel. For this reason, the British government, which had difficulty in governing Palestine, announced in January 1947 that it would ask the United Nations for the issue of governing Palestine. The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was resolved on November 29 as UN Resolution 181 as the United States and the Soviet Union promoted the divisional rule of Arabs and Jews in discussions at the United Nations. It divided Palestine into three parts: Arabs, Jews, and UN-controlled areas (around Jerusalem). However, the Arabs rebelled all at once because the proposal was to give the Arabs more than one-third of Palestine to the Jews, who have a very small population. From the day after the resolution, Palestine was virtually in a state of civil war. Arabs who opposed the resolution attacked and burned down, and Jews also counterattacked. The British troops were no longer capable of maintaining security and the civil war was left unattended. The outrageous British troops decided to withdraw from Palestine by May 15, 1948.

War preparation

Seeing this civil war situation, Arab volunteers gathered from each country, and in February 1948, the Arab Salvation Army led by Amin al-Qaigny and Abd al-Qadir al-Qainy was formed, and the Arab Liberation Army led by Fawzi al-Qaukji. Was also formed. Abdul Rahman Hasan Azzam, who became the first secretary-general of the newly formed Arab Federation, was known for condemning anti-Semitic acts such as the destruction of Jewish shops and synagogues. "Personally, I think this will be a war of exclusion and a dangerous slaughter that is equated with the genocide of Mongolia and the war of the synagogue, Jews do not want us to force a war. I think that volunteers will far exceed the population of Palestine. "