Kumimono, or kumimono (Chinese: dougong), is a group of members placed on capitals to support the roof in traditional wooden buildings of Chinese origin. It consists of crossbars (also known as hijiki or 栱) that support the load from above with crossbars that are passed back and forth or to the left and right like arms, and square hoops (also known as masu and masugata) that receive the beams and the braces. , Togumi (Togumi) is also called Togumi (zh: Togumi/(en)) because it consists of To and Gong. is also sometimes used.
There are two types of dou: daito, which is placed directly above the pillar, and small makito, which is placed on top of the pillar. ) and decorated flower hijiki.
It is mainly used in temple architecture, but it is also seen in shrine architecture such as Nagarezukuri. In addition, simple boat elbows can also be seen in residential construction.
The group is considered to have the following roles.
Smoothly transmit the load of the roof, etc. to the pillars. - Ingenuity to support the weight of the tiled roof.
Build deep eaves. - In order to support the edge of the eaves, the idea of sending out round girders (gagyo, the girder closest to the edge of the eaves) is called Mitsusaki.
Reinforce the joints of horizontal members (materials such as horizontally extending beams and girders). - As the scale of the building grew in the Nara period, it became necessary to add additional members because the horizontal members were not long enough to be made with a single member. Since joints are structurally weak, they are reinforced with elbows.
A design indicating the rating of a building. - Kumimono with a large number of hands is considered to be of higher quality, and for important buildings such as the main hall and towers, the highest grade of three hands is often used. It also serves as a guideline for classifying the style of temple architecture (Japanese style, Daibutsu style, Zen style) and estimating the building age, depending on the shape and design of the braid.
The development of kumimono was essential to the development of large-scale architecture. The horizontal members that support the rafters are called girders, and the outermost girders (closer to the eaves) are called gagyo. In the Nara period, most of the round girders literally had a circular cross section, but in later years they all had a square cross section (however, regardless of the cross-sectional shape, the horizontal beams at the above positions are called 'round girders'. ). In order to protrude the round beams further and deepen the eaves of the building, the braid became more complicated.
From the simplest funa-hijiki, in which a boat-shaped elbow is placed on top of a pillar, to daito-hijiki, in which a daito is placed on a pillar and receives an elbow, daito-no-ue Hiramitsuto has three additional makito on the barb, and Demitsu has a crossbar on the top of the daito and puts a to on the tip of the barb sticking out at a right angle from the wall. and), and the further developed one is Degumi. Degumi is a form in which a round beam is received by braiding the tip of the barb sticking out from the wall of Desanto. In the case of desanto, the round girders are not brought forward and are on the same side as the pillars and walls, but in the case of degumi, the barbars are brought forward (perpendicular to the wall), and the to and barbars are assembled on top of them. , Since the round girder is placed on top of it, the round girder is away from the pillars and walls.
The one that pushed out from Degumi to one dan outside is called Futatesaki (also called Nitatesakigumi; hereinafter the same), and the one that pushed out one dan from Nitesaki is called Mitesaki. . In this sense, the above-mentioned Degumi is "one step ahead."