November 28, 2021
Xihe (Giwa, Gika, Pinyin: Xīhé) is the sun-related god that appears in Chinese mythology. He is also referred to as a legendary official. Xihe as a god is regarded as the coachman of the sun or the mother of the sun. As a government official, Xihe is said to have been divided into four people, Mr. Xihe and Mr. Kazu, and distributed in all directions to control astronomical observances.
In China, the motif of the existence that controls the operation of the sun appeared in the Hemudu culture that emerged in the Hangzhou Bay area around 5000 BC. In Hemudu culture, bird patterns were used for earthenware, but among them, a pair of back-to-back birds and a circle with a light beam on their backs are carried on the back of what is expected to be a bone-made spoon handle. Two sets of are found, and this circle is thought to represent the sun and the moon. Archaeologist Minao Hayashi thought that a pair of birds carrying the sun would be Xihe as the "coachman of the sun" who controls the car that carries the sun.
There are roughly two types of Xihe myths that appear in the literature. One is Xihe as the coachman of the sun (the sun), and the other is the mother goddess (the mother of the tenth day) who gave birth to the ten suns. On the other hand, there is also a document that divides Xihe into four people and describes them as officials.
The name of Xihe as the coachman of the sun came to be known because he was sung by Qu Yuan's Chu Ci "Li Sao". In "Ranjou"
a. Similarly, a classic that treats Xihe as a coachman of the sun is the thought book Huainanzi. The astronomical lesson
In the Leishu "Huainanzi", which quotes this description of "Huainanzi",
It can be seen that there was a legend that Xihe controls a hanging car towed by six dragons and carrying the sun.
Mother of the Ten Days
"Sankaikyo" is a famous classic that depicts Xihe as the mother of the sun. The "Great Ara Nankyo" has
a. Here, the "Amabuchi" that Xihe bathes in the sun is the same as the "Yutani" where there is a large tree of Fusang that can be seen in the overseas east longitude and the Oara east longitude of the same "Sankaikyo", and 10 suns bathe in the bath. Will be done. It is said that the sun bathed in hot water rises from the branches of Fuso one by one a day, and this is a combination of the instep, the second, the hei, the cho, the 戊, the self, the geng, the spicy, the 壬, and the 癸 in ten days. It is the basis of the ten-day tale, which is the basis of the old Chinese calendar, with the "season" as one unit. Xihe, who gave birth to the sun, was originally interpreted as the sun god itself, and Mitarai Masaru, a Chinese thought historian, was the sun god who drove a dragon car like the sun gods of other countries. , The sun and the sun are considered to be different, and they have changed into the sun's master and the mother of the sun.
In the Confucian scripture "Shosho",
It is said that Xihe gave people an agricultural calendar by observing the sun, moon, and stars according to the god of heaven at the command of Emperor Yao. In addition, according to another part of the Emperor Yao, Xihe is a general term for Mr. Xihe and Mr. Wa, and it is supposed that four people, Xihe, Xihe, Wanaka, and Waku, ruled all sides. However, comparing the description of the god who controls the four sides and the description of the emperor in the verse and "Sankaikyo", the four people of Xihe and Wa were replaced by later generations, and these four people were originally the sun gods or the sun gods. It is thought that the number of people is only four, with the two being divided into Xihe and Xihe, and the two are given a friend and an aunt to indicate the order of the brothers.
Impact on modern times
In ancient China, the "season" that summarizes the ten days, which seems to have been the basis of the ten-day tale that is closely related to Xihe, is the calendar.