Shu Han


May 20, 2022

Shu Han Han Shu Han area (lower left) Shu Han (221-263) was built by Liu Bei in the land of Bao (Yizhou, now Sichuan / Hubei and part of Yunnan) during the Three Kingdoms period of China. There are many dynasties that have been assigned to the land of Shu, but when we simply say "shu", most of them refer to Shu Han.


Shu is a country that formed the Three Kingdoms era with Wei and Wu. The territory of Sichuan was set, and Chengdu was set as the capital. "Shu Han" is the name of posterity, and the official dynasty name is "Han". This is because when Wei's Wen Emperor Cao Pi destroyed the Han dynasty and took the throne, Liu Bei declared that he would succeed the Han dynasty. Therefore, he did not call himself "Shu Han" at the same time. Another contemporaneous name is Shu Han, who was called by Shu Han. "Season" means "youngest child", which means "the last inheritance of the orthodox Han."


Rise of Liu Bei

At the end of the late Han Dynasty, Liu Yan, who proclaimed the establishment of a provincial governor, set out on his own and was assigned to Yizhou, and with the help of local gentry, he established a local government. In 194, Liu Yan died and Liu Zhang, the fourth son of Liu Yan, took over as Governor of Yizhou, but Liu Zhang was described as foolish. Around 207, Liu Bei, who had been living with Jingzhou Maki and Liu Biao, invited Zhuge Liang in a courtesy of Sanko. At this time, he was told that he would take Jingzhou and Yizhou and join hands with Sun Quan to defeat Cao Cao. Conquered the county.

Liu Bei's and Hanchu King's coronation

From 212 to 214, Liu Bei took the territory from Liu Zhang and gained most of Yizhou under the guidance of Zhang Song, Fa Zheng, Meng Da and others under Liu Zhang. In 215, there was a dispute over Sun Quan and territory, and most of the counties in southern Jingzhou were ceded to Sun Quan. In 219, Liu Bei defeated Xiahou Yuan, who defends Hanchu (Battle of Mount Dingjun), robbed Cao Cao of Hanchu County and became King Hanchu. Guan Yu under Liu Bei invaded Cao Cao from the direction of Jingzhou, but Jingzhou was attacked by Sun Quan, Lu Meng, who had a secret alliance with Cao Cao.

Founding of Shu Han

In 220, Cao Pi abolished the Eastern Han and became the emperor of Wei, and in 221 Liu Bei became the emperor of the Han in opposition. He had Zhuge Liang and others enact Shu Han, the law of Shu, and enhanced the legal system. Furthermore, according to Liu Ba's proposal, new coins were created and a monetary system was established. Since Yizhou has abundant mineral resources and produced salt, Liu Bei measured the profits from the monopoly of salt and iron and established the Shiofu school lieutenant (Salt school lieutenant), and the monopoly of salt and iron greatly increased the income of the national treasury. Increased. In 222, he attacked Wu to recapture Jingzhou and to avenge Guan Yu, but was defeated before Lu Xun (Battle of Xiaoting). At this time, Shu Han's main soldiers, including Ma Liang, were killed in action, and their military power was greatly weakened and human resources were lost. In the same year, Liu Bei signed a peace with Sun Quan. In 223, Liu Bei entrusted Zhuge Liang with the aftermath and demise. He was later posthumous as Emperor Akira. After Liu Bei's death, his son Liu Zen succeeded him, and Zhuge Liang took office as Grand Chancellor. After that, Yong Kai and Gao Ding rebelled in the southern part of Yizhou, but Zhuge Liang and Li Hui conquered the four counties in southern Yizhou in 225 and settled the rebellion.

Zhuge Liang's Northern Expedition

And Zhuge Liang carried out the northern felling against Wei, inheriting Liu Bei's will. Zhuge Liang's "Chu Shi Biao" played by Zhuge Liang on Liu Shan is highly regarded as a masterpiece from that time to the present day. In 228, Wei's Tianshui, Nan'an, and Stable counties are stolen, but Ma Su, the forerunner, ignores military orders and takes the town.