January 18, 2022

An enzyme (enzyme) is a molecule that functions as a catalyst for chemical reactions that occur inside and outside the body. Reactions catalyzed by enzymes are called "enzymatic" reactions. The classical discipline for studying the structure and reaction mechanism of enzymes in this regard is enzymology. Enzymes are involved in all processes (ADME) from the stage in which an organism digests a substance to absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and are indispensable for the organism to change and utilize the substance. Therefore, enzymes are a major field in biochemical research and have been the subject of research from an early stage. Recent studies have shown that new areas of pseudoenzyme analysis have grown and, during evolution, the ability of some enzymes to carry out biological catalysts, often reflected in amino acid sequences and aberrant "pseudocatalytic" properties, has been lost. It is recognized that it was done. Many enzymes are composed mainly of proteins produced in the living body. Therefore, the characteristics of production and distribution in the living body, the characteristics of denatured by heat and pH and the loss of activity (inactivation), etc. are the same as other proteins. If a living body is compared to an institution, the genome represented by the nucleic acid base sequence corresponds to a blueprint, whereas the enzyme in the living body corresponds to an assembly tool. It is necessary for life support due to the characteristic of enzymes, such as the property of preferring acting substances (substrate) (substrate specificity) and the property of advancing only the desired reaction (reaction selectivity (also called reaction specificity)). It causes various chemical changes. Since ancient times, human beings have used enzymes in the form of fermentation. Today, the use of enzymes is not limited to food manufacturing, but is applied to a wide range of fields such as manufacturing of chemical industrial products, functional improvement of daily necessities, and medical treatment. In medical treatment, digestive enzymes are used as digestive enzyme agents, and they are used for diagnosis by examining the amount of enzymes that increase or decrease depending on the disease. Enzymes are deeply involved in medical treatment, as most medicines function by regulating the action of enzymes.

Main role

The role of enzymes in living organisms is to take up organic and inorganic compounds that make up life and cause the necessary chemical reactions. Life phenomena include many metabolic pathways, each of which consists of multi-step chemical reactions. In the cell, a wide variety of enzymes are working in the form of being responsible for the various chemical reactions that occur in the cells. Each enzyme takes in a specific raw material compound (substrate) suitable for its shape from the outside, catalyzes the chemical reaction in charge, and releases the product to the outside. Then, it takes in the substrate again for the next reaction and continues to produce the target substance. The product released here is metabolized to another biological substance under the action of an enzyme responsible for another chemical reaction. By repeating the catalytic reaction of such enzymes, the production of necessary substances and the decomposition of unnecessary substances proceed, and the life activity is maintained. In the living body, the substrate and the container of the product are not separated as in the plant of the chemical industry, but various substances exist as one. However, life activity cannot be maintained if various compounds react in a disorderly manner in the metabolic pathways that create life phenomena. Therefore, the enzyme must select the substance that should act from the substances in the living body. Also, if the reaction creates extra things, it may adversely affect the surroundings.

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