Non-profit organization


December 7, 2021

A non-profit organization (Hieri Dantai, English: non-profit organization) is an organization (organization) that is not for profit. It is also called a non-profit organization (Hieri Soshiki), a non-profit organization (Hieri Kikan), etc. In normal terms, it does not include governmental organizations. In a broad sense, it also includes public organizations (public corporations, etc.) such as special public corporations and authorized corporations. In a narrow sense, it may also refer to a non-profit social contribution activity or charitable organization (so-called NPO).


See NPO # Overview for research on definitions of nonprofits in the broad and narrow senses. In the following, we will explain the classification mainly related to the national system.

Definition based on business license

If the organization is for the public interest, the form of the organization may be stipulated by law depending on the type of business. In this case, it is necessary to obtain administrative permission and approval for the establishment and operation of the organization, and occasionally receive administrative paternalistic supervision. In Europe and the United States, there are examples like French public facility corporations, but especially in Japan, there is an urgent need to develop public interest infrastructure after the war, and due to the fact that a large amount of public funds such as subsidies were invested, the government is a corporation. Many legislation stipulates authorization authority from the perspective of being directly involved in the operation. In addition, due to the vertically divided administration, the types of corporations will be scattered by the number of departments that have jurisdiction over the individual public utilities of each ministry and agency, and the content of the operating standards that each corporation should comply with will also be the policy of the competent department. As a result, it was decided to be unrelated and disorderly to each other. The main corporations that require approval are as follows. Medical corporation (Article 44 of the Medical Care Act. "Authorization" is required.) School corporation (Article 30 of the Private School Law. "Authorization" is required.) Social welfare corporation (Article 31 of the Social Welfare Act. "Authorization" is required.) Vocational training corporation (Article 35 of the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law. "Authorization" is required.) Consumers'Co-operative (Article 57 of the Consumers' Co-operative Law. "Authorization" is required.) Religious corporation (Article 12 of the Religious Corporation Law. "Certification" is required.) Specified non-profit organization (Article 10 of the Specified Non-Profit Activities Promotion Law. "Certification" is required.) Public Interest Incorporated Foundations / Public Interest Incorporated Foundations (Article 4 of the Act on Authorization of Public Interest Incorporated Foundations and Public Interest Incorporated Foundations. "Certification" is required.) These corporations are sometimes commonly referred to as "authorized corporations". Japan's diversified and fragmented licensing system often hinders comprehensive debate about what nonprofits should be. In Taiwan, in accordance with the "Civil Code of the People's Republic of China", there are "corporations" and "foundations" just like the Civil Code of Japan, and registration permission by the government department is required. However, unlike Japan, there is no corporate type according to the individual law. For example, even a corporation that operates a religious temple has a type such as "Foundation XX Temple (Foundation)". In China, "zh: social body" according to the "Social Group Registration Management Ordinance", "Private Beneficial Non-Corporate Unit" according to the "Private Beneficial Non-Company Single Registration Management Provisional Ordinance", and "zh: Fund" under the "Foundation Management Ordinance" There is a meeting. Registration permission to the government department is required for the establishment and operation of the business, and as in Japan, the operation is also tangible and intangible. However, especially in the private sector non-corporate unit that developed during the economic growth after the end of the 20th century, there are many organizations that have their own funds or financial base and are operating independently, and the continuation of the business is subsidy or law. Fully covered in the benefit system

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