1812 Russian Campaign

Article

July 5, 2022

1812 Russian War (French: Campagne de Russie, Russian: Отечественная война) was defeated in 1812 by Napoleon I of the French Empire invading Russia because the Russian Empire did not comply with the Berlin Decree. It is a series of historical events leading up to the retreat. See below for Russian names. The invasion of the Russian Empire by Napoleon I in 1812 marked a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. This expedition drastically reduced the invading army of the French Empire and its allies to less than 2% from its original strength. The influence on Russian culture can be seen in Leo Tolstoy's "War and Peace" and the former Soviet Union equating it with the German-Soviet war (1941-1945).

War name

Until 1941, this war was known in Russia as the Homeland War (Russian: Отечественная война, Otechestvennaya Voyna), and after 1941 it became known as the 1812 Homeland War. This is because the former Soviet government emphasized the Great Patriotic War (German-Soviet war) of World War II. In Russia, this war is sometimes called the "War of 1812", but in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, the "War of 1812" refers to the War of 1812.

Invasion

Resistance Army

In June 1812, the Grande Armée of the French Empire, the largest in European history with 691,500 men, was about to cross the Neman River to reach Moscow. The Continental Army was divided as follows. 250,000 Central Attack Forces under the direct control of the emperor Two frontal forces under the command of Eugene de Boarne (80,000) and Jerome Bonaparte (70,000) Two troops under the command of Jack McDonald (32,500) and Karl Philipp to Schwarzenberg (34,000 Austrian troops) An 80,000 "National Defense Force" was convened to defend the border of the Duchy of Warsaw, with a reserve force of 225,000. About 771,500 people were trying to invade Russia with these, including all French Imperial troops on the Russian border. In addition, the French Empire had more than 300,000 troops in combat in Iberia and more than 200,000 in Germany and Italy. This overwhelmed the forces of other forces hostile to the empire. 450,000 French troops formed most of the expeditionary force, with allied forces forming the rest. In addition to Schwarzenberg's troops from Austria, there are approximately 95,000 Polish soldiers and 90,000 German soldiers (24,000 in the Kingdom of Bavaria, 20,000 in the Kingdom of Saxony, 20,000 in the Kingdom of Prussia and 17,000 in the Kingdom of Westphalia. , Thousands from the Confederation of the Rhine), 25,000 Italian soldiers, 12,000 Swiss soldiers, 4,800 Spanish soldiers, 3,500 Croatian soldiers, 2,000 Portuguese soldiers, and dispatched troops from the Netherlands and Belgium. There was. These are the nations that were overthrown by Napoleon and reorganized into an empire. According to a recent theory, the initial Russian troops were less powerful than the French. About 280,000 Russian soldiers were deployed on the Polish border (Emperor Alexander I was preparing an invasion plan for the Duchy of Warsaw, the French satellite state). The total number of Russian Army on the eve of the war clashing with Napoleon's army was about 500,000 (there is a theory that the size of the Russian army was about 350,000 and that it was at most 710,000). It contained three major corps. Frontline army 1st Western Army: Commanded by Michael Andreas Barclay de Tori, Approximately 159,800 2nd Western Army: �