20th century classical music
November 28, 2021
20th century classical music has become extremely diverse compared to the classical music of earlier centuries. Until the 19th century, composers composed based on similar musical styles, even if they were from different countries. For example, composers of the First Viennese School (c. 1740-1820) used what to use for musical forms such as sonata forms, what instruments to use for orchestras, and what good-sounding sounds were. I was thinking about something similar about the question of what it was like.
In contrast, 20th century classics are diverse. Many "musicians" were born because there were many composers who had different ideas about composition methods that pursued different formats, sounds, and musical beauty from those that had been tried so far. Many of the names of "musical" in 20th century classical music have "principle" at the end of the word. Some are influenced by jazz, world music (non-Western classical music), and folk songs (folk songs). Furthermore, in the latter half of the 20th century, "electronic music" was born, and later music such as "minimal" and "postmodern" was born.
Generally, the name of an era is given after the era has passed. Therefore, what to call 20th century classical music is a difficult problem. On the other hand, music after 1900 is often collectively called "contemporary music", and music from 1975 to the present in the 21st century is sometimes called "contemporary music".
This section describes the music composed from 1900 to 1999.
Classical music until World War I
Second Viennese School and Neoclassical Music
Among the composers of the early 20th century, the tonality-based musical system has changed from the harmonic change, as represented by the Tristan chords in Richard Wagner's opera "Tristan und Isolde". Many thought that it was already old, sought a different approach, and tried something new. Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky were two of the most important composers of the time. And they also had very different ideas about music theory.
Second Viennese School
In the case of Schoenberg, he advocated the concept of "atonality" as an extension of previous tonal music. He took that trend even further and eventually developed it into a composition theory called the "twelve-tone technique." This is a technique for composing atonal music composed of "tone rows" arranged in a specific order that can be transformed into various forms in a piece of music. The composition method using the twelve-tone technique is called "serialism". Many composers were influenced by Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique, and especially Anton Webern and Alban Berg, who were under his control, were called "Second Viennese School" along with his teacher Schoenberg. rice field.
Stravinsky was a Russian composer and inspired by Russian culture to write ballet music entitled "The Rite of Spring". The Rite of Spring was full of irregular rhythms that confused the dancers, with some parts becoming polytonal. Later, Stravinsky disagreed with the melody of music written during the 18th century Baroque era, such as Pulcinella.