Genome (Life Sciences)

Article

January 23, 2022

Genome or genome (German: genome, English: genome [*]) refers to all genetic information of an individual, and includes genes (exons + introns in the case of eukaryotes) and non-genes (repeated sequences, etc.) total nucleotide sequence including all). The genome is usually stored in DNA, and in some viruses it is in RNA. The word ‘Genome’ is derived from genes and chromosomes, and was coined in 1920 by Hans Winkler, a professor of botany at the University of Hamburg. The term 'genome' was first used on October 10, 1996 by the Korea Genome Organization, adopted by the general secretary, Professor Changwon Kang, and renamed as the Korea Genome Research Council (currently the Korean Genome Society). It was used to establish and use the genome research support group of the National Assembly on November 4, and the definition of the term was specified in Article 2 of the revised Act on August 28, 1997 of the Biotechnology Promotion Act. In genomics, a study from genetics, the genome is studied, and since it requires a lot of bioinformatics technology, it is also dealt with in the field of information science. Along with genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and interactomics are being studied. Through genome decoding, the relationship between genes and diseases is also being revealed. For example, the genes for bipolar disorder, deafness and Down syndrome are located on chromosome 21. Some scholars believe that more than 3% of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure are determined by genetic factors. However, while genomic analysis can help prevent disease, there remains a big problem in that it can infringe on personal information. Since genetic information is ultimately important personal information, there is an opinion that it is unreasonable to discriminate against individuals based on genetic information and therefore should not be tolerated. How to protect personal information is a new task in the post-genome era. Methods for deciphering the genome can be broadly classified into two categories. One is re-sequencing, and the other is new or de novo sequencing. This is fundamentally different in purpose and concept when making a genome map. The first human standard genome, which cost a total of 4 trillion won, was a new genome map created by a new detoxification method. This is a kind of half genome map constructed according to the skeleton by aligning the mainly translated short sequences to the newly deciphered standard genome.

polyploid

A haploid is a somatic cell or organism that has only one set of chromosomes, and the bacteria have a copy of the original. A haploid is a cell or organism that has haploid chromosomes as a result of meiosis. Sperm, eggs and gametes of lower plants, or in the logging of insects. A diploid, on the other hand, is a cell or individual that contains two sets of haploids, each derived from a maternal and paternal line. It is the normal chromosome complement of somatic cells, and somatic cells contain twice the number of chromosomes present in eggs and sperm. It is a reproductive mechanism found in common animals.

Human Genome

The human genome refers to all the DNA sequences of about 3.3 billion pairs, including all the genes necessary to make a human organism and the parts outside the gene. The human genome is divided into 44 (22 pairs) autosomes, 2 (1 pair) sex chromosomes (X, Y), and mitochondrial DNA. DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) is responsible for the gene. DNA is composed of not only phosphoric acid and sugar, but also the bases A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), and C (cytosine).

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