science

Article

January 26, 2022

Science or science (English: Science) refers to a system of systematic and theoretical knowledge obtained by observable methods such as structures, properties, and laws of things. Narrowly, it refers to knowledge about the natural world that mankind has acquired through experiments based on empiricism and methodological naturalism. Scientists attempt to explain phenomena observed in the natural world with natural (non-supernatural) theories according to scientific methods.

Classification

Science can be broadly divided into three categories: Natural science deals with all natural phenomena not exhibited by man. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc. Social science studies human behavior and the societies they form in a scientific way. Humanities are interested in human beings and their culture, or scientific research methods to properly understand human values ​​and the ability to express themselves only by humans. It can also be divided into Pure science is the work of exploring nature and systematizing its working principles. Applied science is an attempt to satisfy the practical needs of mankind through the results of pure scientific research. leads to engineering.

Etymology

The English word science meaning science comes from the Latin scientia meaning 'knowledge', which comes from the prefix scio- meaning 'I know'. It again comes from an Indo-European root meaning 'to separate' or 'to separate', the Sanskrit chyati meaning 'he cuts off', the Greek meaning 'to split'. schizein, related to the Latin scindere, which has the same meaning. From the Middle Ages to the Age of Enlightenment, science or scientia referred to any kind of systematic or accurately recorded knowledge, and thus science at that time was not distinguished from the broad meaning of the word philosophy. In some languages, such as French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian, this distinction is still not clear to this day. From ancient times to modern times, philosophy has been divided into natural philosophy and ethical philosophy. In the 1800s, the name natural philosophy was gradually replaced by the name natural science. The natural sciences were gradually subdivided into existing fields such as physics and biology. The social sciences include some of what was once part of the ethical philosophy, and apply empirical methodologies to the extent possible in this area. The word 'science' is used in several meanings. Empiricism suggests that scientific theories should be objective, empirically verifiable and predictable, which means that empirical results should be refuted or confirmed as far as possible.

History

The oldest recorded scientific work can be found in Egypt in Northeast Africa. Russian-born American author Isaac Asimov in his book The Encyclopedia of the Life of Science and Technology states that science is the gift of ancient Africa to the modern world. The Egyptian priest Imhotep is said to have been the first to dispense medicine. The library of Alexandria in Egypt was the first large scientific laboratory, where many of the leading scientists of antiquity, including Euclid and Heron of Alexandria, worked there. Following Egypt, many scientific discoveries were made in ancient Greece. Since then, there have been developments in science in the Islamic culture as well.

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