Guam

Article

August 20, 2022

Guam (English: Guam; Chamorro: Guåhan; cultural language: Guam Island) is a U.S. foreign territory in the Mariana Islands of Micronesia, Oceania. The Chamorros settled here about 4000 years ago and became the indigenous peoples. The largest island in the Mariana Islands and the southernmost island, the capital is Hagåtña. Guam's economy is dominated by tourists from Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, the Republic of China, the United States, and Canada. The United Nations Commission on Colonial Liberation has placed Guam on its list of non-autonomous territories. When Guam was invaded by Japan, it was called Omiya Island in Japanese. The US 7th Fleet is stationed there to support the Republic of Korea in case of an emergency on the Korean Peninsula. Guam is about 3000 km from Korea. It is located about 3500 km from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It is one of the travel destinations that many people want to visit.

Geography

Guam lies at latitude 13° 28′ north latitude 144° 45′ east longitude, and the island is about 544 square kilometers (about 134,453 acres) and about 48 kilometers long. To the north of the island are forested coral-limestone plateaus, and to the south are forested and grassy volcanic peaks. The island's coastline is mostly made of coral reefs. The population is mostly concentrated in the northern and central parts of the island. It is the southernmost island of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia.

Climate

Although Guam has a tropical climate, it never rises above 39°C during the day and never drops below 26°C at night. It is also the source of typhoons and sometimes even tropical squalls.

History

The present-day Guam region has been inhabited since the 21st century BC, when people from southeastern Indonesia came to live. The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the world and arrived on the island on March 6, 1521, where Guam's first contact with Western civilization took place. In 1565, General Miguel López de Legazpi claimed Guam as Spanish territory. Spanish colonial rule began in 1668 with the arrival of Father San Vitores, the first Catholic missionary here. From 1668 to 1815, Guam served as an important resting point on the Spanish trade route between Mexico and the Philippines. This was a time when the entire Caroline Islands, including Guam and other islands in the Mariana Islands, were treated as part of the Spanish colony of the Philippines. The island's indigenous culture, the Chamorro culture, was so unique that it was heavily influenced by and undermined by Spanish culture and traditions. In 1898, the United States seized control of the island in the Spanish-American War. While the northern Mariana Islands were invaded by Japan via Germany, Guam served as a station for ships to and from the Philippines. On December 8, 1941, during World War II, Guam was invaded by Japanese forces. Because the northern part of the Mariana Islands had already been a Japanese protectorate under the jurisdiction of Namyangcheong (Namyang Islands) before the war, the Chamorros who lived there were called up to work for the Japanese occupation forces, such as interpreting, and the Japanese and the Chamorros of Guam. The people were treated as enemies of the occupied territories. In the colonial rule that lasted for about 31 months under the name of Daikyuto, the indigenous people of Guam were mobilized for forced labor, family separation, confinement, execution, forced detention, and sexual slavery. As a result, the Chamorros of Guam harbor a kind of hostility towards the invaders as well as the Chamorros of the northern Mariana Islands. Quite a few of the residents have memories of suffering Japanese aggression.